SUMMARY Prof. Sousa has 40 years of engineering experience. He has extensive international experience (15 countries) on a range of projects including dams, foundations, tunnels, and other underground structures. His technical areas of expertise include concrete dams; rock foundations of dams and other structures; tunneling for subways, roads, railways and hydraulic projects; underground storage; mining; rock mechanics; tests; and numerical modeling. He is Full Professor at the University of Porto in Portugal and is conducting research on risk management for geotechnical systems. Prof. Sousa is multilingual, speaking English, Spanish, French and Portuguese; he has authored or co-authored over 20 books and hundreds of journal articles, presentations and reports. He is very active in a number of professional societies and has served as President of the Portuguese Geotechnical Society and Vice-President at Large for the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) from 2003 to 2007. He was also the Chairman of the 2007 ISRM Congress in Lisbon, Portugal and he is now President of SKec Engineering Consultanting.
Underground hydroelectric power schemes
Jinping Hydro-Power Station II, China: Member of the International Expert Consulting Panel for Jinping hydro-power station II, now in construction in China. Jinping II hydropower scheme has the largest water tunnels for a hydraulic power station and is one of the most outstanding tunneling projects in the world. A report was prepared providing comments and suggestions for continuing site investigation and risk assessment of the high pressure tunnels.
Alto Lindoso Hydroelectric Scheme, Portugal: As a consult from LNEC, Prof. Sousa participated in the design and construction monitoring for the Alto Lindoso power scheme. This undertaking has a concrete arch dam with 110m high, founded in granite formations. The power station is totally underground with a power installed capacity of 630MW and a mean annual energy out put of 948GW. The underground complex is at a depth of 340m and it comprised a power station and two chambers, an extensive hydraulic circuit with two independent high pressure circuits and a low pressure circuit of about 5km, as well as a surge chamber of large dimensions. Prof. Sousa established an observation plan for the underground activities and developed an extensive rock mechanics program testing involving in situ state of stress evaluations, large deformability tests, evaluation of joint sets, and laboratory tests. He also observed underground structures during construction, test phases and exploration, conducting regular inspections, calculations and analysis of monitoring results.
Cahora-Bassa Hydroelectric Scheme, Mozambique: The Cahora Bassa dam is one of the largest hydroelectric schemes in Africa. It includes an arch dam about 200m high and a reservoir with a maximum length of 292km and a maximum width of 38km, and an area of 2,739km2. The installed capacity is 2,400MW. The system includes two converter stations, one at Songo in Mozambique and the other at Apollo in South Africa. There are two parallel lines between these two stations, covering 1,400km, of which 900 km is in Mozambican territory. The large power station is totally underground and has two surge chambers and a hydraulic circuit. After the civil war, one of the many effects of the unrest was the damage to the HVDC transmission lines and the monitoring system at the dam and underground works. After the war, Prof. Sousa participated in the establishing an observation plan for the underground structures and downstream slopes; inspection visits to the underground complex and dam, which included the measurement of convergences using a new device developed at LNEC and introduced software storage of all monitoring information related to the underground structures and downstream slopes; inspection of downstream slopes using TV cameras; laboratory testing on boring samples and applying empirical systems for rock mass classification; and developing technical reports.
Repowering of Miranda Hydroelectric Scheme, Portugal: The Miranda hydroelectric scheme is located in the northern Portugal on the Douro River and is comprised of a buttress dam and an underground power station with three units. The repowering of the Miranda scheme was performed by adding a new unit with a capacity of about 200MW and included a shaft and a new hydraulic circuit. Prof. Sousa worked to establish a monitoring plan for the repowering works, the upstream cofferdam and the old powerhouse; contributed to the geotechnical study of rock mass associated with repowering works that included large deformability tests and in situ state of stress tests, and laboratory tests; observed and supervised the construction with visits and installation of instrumentation; established a monitoring plan for the testing phase and infilling; analyzed results; and prepared reports.
Venda Nova II Hydroelectric Scheme, Portugal: The Venda Nova II pumped-storage station is located in the northern region of Portugal. Constructed in a granite rock mass on the left bank of the Rabagão River, between the Venda Nova and Salamonde reservoirs, it is an important addition to the eight plant Cávado-Rabagão-Homem cascade system. Rated at 191.6 MW, the Venda Nova II pumped-storage plant improves the efficiency of the existing hydropower cascade system. The powerhouse is located in the middle of the hydraulic circuit at a depth of 350m and consists of two caverns connected by two galleries. A 1.5km long tunnel provides the main access to the powerhouse and transformer caverns. Both caverns are also connected to the surface by a ventilation and safety gallery. Prof. Sousa performed geotechnical characterization studies before the construction involving dilatometer tests, STT tests for in situ state stress evaluation, several laboratory tests and classification of the granite rock mass formations. He also participated in the application of patterns recognition techniques to discover new geomechanical models using empirical classification data obtained during construction; and participated in research studies for the evaluation of geomechanical parameters applying back analysis methodologies in cooperation with INSA Lyon, France and University of Minho, Portugal.
Alvito Hydroelectric Scheme, Portugal.The Alvito scheme is located in the center part of Portugal, and comprised a rolled concrete dam and a large underground circuit, powerhouse complex and a surge chamber. Prof. Sousa participated as engineering consultant for STUCKY, Switzerland, in the preliminary design of the underground construction and site assessment.
DUSEL Laboratory, USA: The former Homestake mine in Lead, South Dakota has been selected as the site for the National Science Foundation’s Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Prof. Sousa presented a research proposal entitled New Models for Geomechanical Characterization in Underground Engineering, led by Lachel Felice and Associates (LF&A), with cooperation of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Purdue University and RESPEC, South Dakota. The purpose of the project is the development of new geomechanical models in terms of deformability and strength and the evaluation of these models using Knowledge Discoveries in Databases processes, with particular emphasis in Bayesian Networks. The development of tools for risk management and decision making in underground construction will be other scientific achievements to be obtained. Also he participated in two workshops held in Lead, South Dakota, 2008 and Washington D.C., 2007. Prof. Sousa included the team responsible for geotechnical engineering services to DUSEL, involving RESPEC, LF&A and Golders. The work plan comprised core drilling, laboratory and in situ tests, and site mapping.
Neves-Corvo Mine, Portugal: Neves Corvo mine is a volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit of the Iberian pyrite belt, which consists of five ore bodies. This is one of the largest deposits of massive sulphides in the world. Prof. Sousa conducted FEM geomechanical and stability analysis of the crushing chambers and FEM and BEM geomechanical studies for the global stability analysis of the underground mining excavations and analysis of the influence of the main geomechanical parameters associated. He also participated in the interpretation of in situ state of stress tests using the CSIRO deformeter cells.
Aljustrel Mine, Portugal: Aljustrel mine is a very old pyrite mine with other minerals like zinc. Prof. Sousa’s activities were related to the interpretation of in situ state of stress tests.
Storage of Natural Gas in Salt Formations, Portugal: Prof. Sousa participated in the study of the propagation of a fault in a salt dome due to an intensive earthquake and the application to the Monte Real site, in Portugal.
Effect of an Earthquake on a Lined Rock Cavern (LRC) for Storage of Natural Gas, France & Sweden: Prof. Sousa participated in a study for the Consortium GDF – Gaz de France, France and Sidkraft, Sweden in the framework of the EU programme Thermie. This study examined the effect of earthquakes on a pilot facility for an underground LRC, constructed in Sweden for the storage of natural gas at high pressure. Three different scenarios of seismic events were generated and their impact on the caverns was analyzed using 3D FLAC models.
Risk Analysis Assessment of CO2 Injection Process in Carboniferous Formations and Saline Aquifers, China, Brazil, UAE: Prof. Sousa is involved in a project in cooperation with the China Mining University of Beijing, China, the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and eventually PETROBRAS, the Petroleum Brazilian Company. A similar project was proposed to the Institute of Petroleum from Abu Dhabi, UAE for the sequestration of CO2 and investigation in Petroleum Engineering with the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Railway Tunnels, Portugal: Prof. Sousa was responsible for the regular inspection of the Portuguese railway tunnels, which included monitoring, in situ and laboratory tests and numerical simulations, and the preparation of technical reports to classify tunnel conditions and present recommendations for maintenance and rehabilitation. His extensive work includes: Rossio tunnel, now rehabilitated - Sintra Line; Serra do Pilar tunnel - Norte Line; São Bento, China II, Seminário, Tamel and Caminha tunnels - Minho Line; Trindade tunnel - Metro do Porto; Régua, Bagaúste, Meão and Juncal (rehabilitated) tunnels - Douro Line; Sabugal tunnel - Beira Baixa Line; Carpinteiros, Portinhas, Pequeno Salgueiral, Grande Salgueiral, Trezoi, Espinho, Coval, Murilho, Abrunhosa, Azeval, Ribeira and Monte Lobos tunnels - Beira Alta Line; Carvalhosas, Vale Açor and Carrô tunnels - Lousã Line; Alfândega III tunnel - Alfândega Line; Pragal and Feijó tunnels - Norte-Sul Line; Alhadas tunnel - Figueira da Foz Line; and Alcântara tunnel - Alcântara Line.
High Speed Railway Tunnels, Portugal: As an engineering consultant, Prof. Sousa performed studies for the Portuguese Company RAVE (Portuguese High Speed Rail Network Manager) regarding the monitoring and observation of tunnels for the high-speed railway tunnels in Portugal and conducted a feasibility study for an immersed tube tunnel in Lisbon under the Tagus River.
Road Tunnels, Portugal & USA: While employed by LNEC, Prof. Sousa worked on several projects involving road tunnels. He was responsible for the structural behavior of a tunnel under the Sá Carneiro Airport runway near Porto, Portugal. He inspected the tunnel, investigated using georadar, TV camera and other non-destructive tests; conducted numerical analysis; and provided recommendations to solve problems associated with ground surface settlements. Prof. Sousa participated in an accident investigation at the Tornada tunnel on Motorway A8 and supervised the design of the Grilo tunnel on Motorway CRIL near Lisbon. At the University of Porto, he studied tunnels in volcanic formations at Madeira Island. As an employee of LF&A, he assisted in the design of Cliffs Highway Tunnel Project at Swannanoa, North Carolina, USA.
Hydraulic Tunnels, Portugal: Prof. Sousa’s work includes the geotechnical characterization and observation of several hydraulic tunnels, namely the Castelo do Bode, Sado-Morgavel and Campilhas dam tunnels, among others. His activities at Castelo do Bode tunnel included the geotechnical characterization consisting of dilatometer tests, integral samples, and special dilatometer tests, SFJ and STT tests designed to determine the in situ state of stress; the monitoring of the tunnel during and after the construction; the performance of special tests during initial operation of the tunnel as well as hydromechanical tests in laboratory. He cooperated in the monitoring Sado-Morgavel tunnel which has a length of more 12km. Prof. Sousa also worked on the pressure tunnel of Campilhas dam, performing rock mechanics, concrete lab and in situ tests; as well as 3D numerical analysis to establish recommendations for repairs.
Sewer Tunnels, USA: He participated in the Big Walnut Augmentation-Rickenbacker Intercepet (BWARI) Sewer Project in the city of Columbus, Ohio, in the analysis of the construction difficulties encountered during the construction of Shaft 7 of Part 1 and in the characterization of the cobble and boulder fraction for the tunnel of Part 2.
Development of Software for Tunnels, Brazil: Prof. Sousa developed FEM software for the structural calculation of tunnels at the request of the Brazilian Company Escritório Figueiredo Ferraz, São Paulo. A detailed manual was also developed.
Accident at Olivais-Sul Station, Lisbon Metro, Portugal: Prof. Sousa was the chairman of the accident investigation commission led by LNEC, which involved the study of different accidents during tunnel construction worldwide, the analysis of Olivais-Sul Station project, the adoption of constructive solutions, the monitoring of results and the FEM simulation of the station excavation. He also supervised the reconstruction of the station after the accident and held regular meetings with the engineers responsible for the design and the construction.
Expansion of Yellow Line, Lisbon Metro, Portugal: In cooperation with the Lisbon Metro Company, Prof. Sousa supervised the expansion of the Yellow Line between Campo Grande and Odivelas. The new line, 5 kilometers long, consisted of 3.5 km of tunnels, 1.1 km of viaducts and 5 new stations. The tunnels included 2.7 km built by an EPB TBM Lovat machine and 2 NATM tunnels about 800m long. His work included the analysis of the Yellow Line expansion project, periodic inspection visits, regular meetings at the site and consulting activities regarding monitoring and safety, as well as the preparation of reports.
Metro of Porto, Portugal: He has worked with Metro of Porto Company to establish a monitoring and maintenance programme for the underground works of Metro do Porto through the University of Porto. Also, at the University, he participated in several studies concerning tunnels and underground stations such as Bolhão, Faria Guimarães, Marquês de Pombal and Heroísmo, and in the characterization of the heterogeneous granite formations using artificial intelligence techniques.
Metro of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: He taught an intensive course on Tunnels in Transport Infrastructures. Maintenance and Rehabilitation in cooperation with Rio de Janeiro Metro Company and Pontificia Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro. The course included topics such as Safety Control, Inspection of Tunnels, Rehabilitation of Tunnels, Studies in Portugal and Future Perspectives (High Speed Railway in Portugal).
Rock Mass Foundation Deterioration of Portuguese Concrete Dams, USA: As a researcher from LNEC, Prof. Sousa participated in study for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers concerning the Portuguese experience on the deterioration of the rock mass for concrete dam foundations. The cases of Venda Nova, Bouçã and Varosa dam were analyzed and the repair works performed. A final report was prepared.
Aguieira dam foundation, Portugal: Aguieira dam is a part of multipurpose hydraulic scheme. The dam has three arches and two buttresses with a height of 89m, crest length of 400m and retained water volume of 450hm3. Prof. Sousa’s participation consisted of predicting and controlling actions due to seepage through the foundation through FEM analysis, and testing several hypotheses regarding the seepage cutoff and drainage works. The study permitted to design the seepage cutoff and drainage systems for the dam foundation. He also observed the hydromechanical behavior of the foundation in accordance to the established observation plan. The observed behavior showed a strong influence of the state of stress in the hydromechanical behavior of the foundation. The development of a 3D FEM model was important in order to analyze the behavior.
Água Vermelha Dam, Brazil: Prof. Sousa participated in the study of the stability of the foundation of the Água Vermelha dam, located in the São Paulo State, Brazil, as requested by CESP Company, Brazil. The analysis of the safety conditions focused mainly on the study of a low strength zone within the basaltic formations using numerical models and the results obtained through in situ shear tests.
Other Dams, Portugal, USA, Spain & Greece: Fratel Dam, Portugal (numerical study at LNEC for the pillars of the dam); Auburn Dam, USA (numerical study at LNEC for an arch dam 209m high for static loads); Almendra Dam, Spain (numerical study at LNEC for a 196m high dam for static loads); Sfikia Dam, Greece (numerical study for COBA for static and dynamic loads); Atazar Dam, Spain (numerical study for COBA for the reinforcement of the foundation); Torrão Dam, Portugal (establishment of a monitoring plan for the dam and foundation at LNEC); Pracana Dam, Portugal (inspection of boreholes of the concrete using a TV camera at LNEC).
Deformability Evaluation of Rock Foundations, Japan. Prof. Sousa performed a study and wrote a technical report concerning deformability of rock foundations in cooperation with PWRI, Tsukuba, Japan. Different techniques were compared and analyzed with particular emphasis given to the Japanese techniques employed for analysis of the Surikamigawa dam.
Prof. Sousa participated as an engineering consultant on studies concerning slope stability in Portugal; the stability of volcanic cavities at São Miguel Island, Azores; the stability of old man-made cavities in Portugal; the foundations of Ponta Delgada airport runway, Azores; the Baucau and Dili airports in East Timor; dock structures at Cadiz, Spain, and Setubal, Portugal; a report regarding works for forts in Oman for the Company SAROOJ; and concrete structures in Portugal.
Prof. Sousa participated in the study of deep rock foundations of skyscrapers where the analysis of the foundations of important buildings in New York and Chicago, USA, was performed.
Prof. Sousa is representing University of Porto in the research program MIT-Portugal in project RISK – Risk Assessment and Management for High Speed Rail System, involving MIT and Universities of Porto, Coimbra and Lisbon, Portugal.
Prof. Sousa organized several courses (Portugal, Brazil and Saudi Arabia), conferences (USA, Brazil, Russia, China, Portugal, France, Japan, Vietnam, Mozambique, Switzerland and The Netherlands) and other meetings (Portugal, Brazil and Russia) and collaborates with several organizations such as International Society of Rock Mechanics, Portuguese Geotechnical Society and Brazilian Association for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.
American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA)
Brazilian Association for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Member of the Brazilian Rock Mechanics Committee
International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM). ISRM Vice-President at Large (2003-2007), President of ISRM NG Portugal
International Tunneling Association. Representing Portugal several times
International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering
International Geossynthetical Society, President of the Portuguese National Group, 2002-2004
Portuguese Geotechnical Society (SPG). Secretary General, President
JTC5 – Joint Technical Committee on Sustainable on Use of Underground Space, Member from ISRM
ISRM Commission on Preservation of Ancient Sites. Advisory Member.
Full Professor at University of Porto with activities including Master and Undergraduate courses in Geotechnical Engineering and Structures for Civil Engineering.
Visiting Professor at the Moscow State University for Civil Engineering, Russia, and Pontifícia Catholic University and Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil
PhD and MSc thesis supervision, some of them awarded with ISRM Manuel Rocha Medal from ISRM, Ingeokring Thesis Award from The Netherlands and SPG (Portuguese Geotechnical Society) Award, Portugal.
About 350 publications including books, reports, papers and communications to meetings. A list of the more recent (since 2004) and representative publications is presented:
Calçada, R.; Delgado, R.; Matos, A.C.; Sousa, L.R.; Gomes, A.T. (2009). Tunnels for high speed railways. Proc. of the Workshop on Tunnels for High Speed Railways, Porto, 310p.
Sousa, L.R.; Sousa, R.L.; Silva, C. (2009). Use of Artificial Intelligence techniques in tunnel maintenance. Workshop on Tunnels for High Speed Railways, Porto, pp. 111-124.
Miranda, T.; Correia, A.G.; Sousa, L.R. (2009). Bayesian methodology for updating geomechanical parameters and uncertainty quantification. Int. J. Rock Mechanics Min. Science (to be published).
Sousa, L.R. (2009). Continuing site investigation and risk assessment. Report for the International Consulting Meeting for Jinping Hydro Power Station II, Jinping, China, pp. 1-7.
Sousa, L.R. (2009). Works for the forts in Oman. Report for SAROOJ, Oman, 25p.
Sousa, R.L.; Sousa, R.L.; Silva, C.; Freitas, V. (2009). Maintenance methodologies of old railway tunnels. Conference on New Developments in Rock Mechanics and Engineering, NDRM2009, Sanya, pp. 401-406.
Sousa, L.R.; Miranda, T.; Eclaircy-Caudron, S.; Dias, D. (2009). Estimation of jointed rock masses parameters in large underground hydroelectric schemes. Int. Conference on Rock Joints and Jointed Rock Masses, Tucson, 11p.
Sousa, L.R.; Chapman, D.; Miranda, T. (2009). Deep rock foundations of skyscrapers. Journal Soils and Rocks, 22p (to be published).
Miranda, T.; Sousa, L.R.; Correia, A.G. (2008). Bayseian framework for the deformability modulus updating in an underground structure. 42nd US Rock Mechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 7p.
Miranda, T.; Correia, A.G.; Sousa, L.R. (2008). Development of new models for geomechanical characterization using Data Mining techniques. Journal Geomechanik und Tunnelbau, 5, October 2008, pp. 328-334.
Sousa, L.R. (2007). Feasibility study of an immersed tunnel in the high-speed railway Beato-Montijo (in Portuguese). Technical Report, Morristown, 90p.
Sousa, L.R.; Olalla, C.; Grossmann, N. (2007). The Second Half-Century of Rock Mechanics. 11th ISRM Congress, Lisbon, 3 Vol.
Sousa, L.R.; Fernandes, M.M.; Vargas Jr, E.A.; Azevedo, R. (2007). Applications of computational mechanics in geotechnical engineering V. Proc. 5th Int. Workshop on Applications of Computational Mechanics in Geotechnical Engineering, Guimarães, 522p.
Cafofo, P.; Sousa, L.R.; Moura, F. (2007). Innovative underground works at Madeira Island, Portugal. 11th ACUUS Conference on Underground Space: Expanding the Frontiers, Athens.
Ferreira, P.; Martins, S.; Sousa, L.R. (2007). Rehabilitation of Lapa tunnel, Metro do Porto. 11th ISRM Congress, Workshop on Underground Works under Special Conditions, Madrid.
Ferreira, P.; Sousa, T.R.; Silva, P.; Vasconcelos, H.; Foged, N.; Sousa, L.R. (2007). Numerical Modeling and Monitoring Analysis of Heroísmo Station, Porto Metro. 11th ISRM Congress, Lisbon, pp. 967-970.
Miranda, T.; Correia, A.G.; Eclaircy-Caudron, S.; Dias, D.; Lima, C.; Sousa, L.R. (2007). Numerical analysis of the Venda Nova II powerhouse complex. 5th Int. Workshop on Applications of Computational Mechanics in Geotechnical Engineering, Guimarães.
Sousa, R.L.; Sousa, L.R.; Silva, C. (2007). Maintenance of tunnels and the use of AI techniques. 11th ISRM Congress, Specialized Session on Maintenance and Repair of Underground Structures in Rock Masses, Lisbon.
Miranda, T.; Correia, A.G.; Sousa, L.R. (2007). Use of artificial intelligence techniques and updating of geomechanical parameters. Course on Geomechanical Parameter Evaluation in Rock Engineering Practice, 11th ISRM Congress, Lisbon.
Eclaircy-Caudron, S.; Dias, D.; Kastner, R.; Miranda, T.; Correia, A.G.; Sousa, L.R. (2007). Inverse analysis of two geotechnical works: a tunnel and a cavern. 5th Int. Workshop on Applications of Computational Mechanics in Geotechnical Engineering, Guimarães.
Menezes, A.; Varela, F.; Sousa, L.R., Moura, F. (2007). Geomechanical studies for a road tunnel in volcanic formations. ITA-AITES Congress, Prague.
Miranda, T.; Correia, A.G.; Sousa, L.R. (2007). Geomechanical parameter evaluation in rock masses and heterogeneous formations (in Portuguese). Journal Engenharia Civil, Guimarães, pp. 19-40.
Miranda, T.; Correia, A.G.; Sousa, L.R. (2006). Determination of geomechanical parameters using a KBS system and application to an underground station. ISRM Symposium & ACUUS Conference, Moscow.
Campos e Matos, A.; Sousa, L.R.; Kleberger, J.; Pinto, P. (2006). Geotechnical Risk in Rock Tunnels. Francis & Taylor, 199p.
Sousa, L.R.; Fernandes, E.; Almeida, H.; Dias, D.; Sousa, R.L. (2006). Modeling of large underground stations from Porto and Lisbon Metro. Chapter of the Book edited by Z-Soil, Lausanne.
Portela, E.; Farinha, F.; Silva, C.; Sousa, L.R. (2006). Knowledge based systems applications on dam engineering, railway tunneling and structural design. Int. Journal on Applications of Artificial Intelligence Techniques.
Sousa, L.R. (2006). Big Dig the major road project in USA (in Portuguese). Journal Engenharia e Vida, no. 26 July/August, Lisbon.
Delgado, R.; Sousa, L.R.; Calçada, R.; Ribeiro, D. (2006). Monitoring and observation of tunnels (in Portuguese). Institute of Construction, Report, Porto, 90p.
Sousa, L.R. (2006). Structural analysis behavior of Gruta do Alvito (in Portuguese). LNEC Report, Lisbon, 35p.
Ferreira, P.; Quelhas, J.; Fernandes, E.; Almeida, H., Sousa, L.R.; Calçada, R. (2005). Geomechanical analysis of an underground station from Metro of Porto. Symposium Eurock 2005, Brno.
Ferreira, P.; Quelhas, J.; Fernandes, E.; Almeida, H.; Sousa, L.R.; Calçada, R. (2005). Geomechanical analysis of Marquês station, Metro do Porto (in Portuguese). 2nd Portuguese-Spanish Geotechnical Symposium, Lisbon, 303-309.
Lemos, J.V.; Sousa, L.R.; Fotieva, N.N.; Bulychev, N.S.; Sammal, A.S. (2005). Multiple shallow and cut-and-cover tunnels. Seismic analysis. 10th ACUUS Conference on Underground Space: Economy and Environment & ISRM Symposium on Rock Mechanics for Underground Environment, Moscow, January 2005.
Sousa, L.R.; Sousa, R.L. (2005). Accidents and damage associated to underground works. 10th ACUUS Conference on Underground Space: Economy and Environment & ISRM Symposium on Rock Mechanics for Underground Environment, Moscow, 2005.
Sousa, L.R. (2005). Observation of Gibalta slopes, Cascais Railway Line. Results until the end of 2004 (in Portuguese). LNEC, Report - NFTOS, Lisbon, 55p.
Fotieva, N.N.; Bulychev, N.S.; Antziferov, S.V.; Lemos, J.V.; Vieira, A.; Sousa, L.R. (2005). Designing shallow tunnel linings constructed with the application of grouting under seismic effects (in Russian). Mine Informative-Analytical Bulletin, Moscow.
Sousa, L.R.; Oliveira, M. (2004). Volcanic cave in the João do Rego Street at Ponta Delgada (in Portuguese). LNEC Report 142/04, Lisbon, 115p.
Cardoso, C.; Sousa, L.R. (2004). Past, present and future of Geotechnique (in Portuguese). 9th Portuguese Geotechnical Congress, Aveiro, 4 volumes.
Cardoso, C.; Sousa, L.R.; Hachich, W. (2004). Embankments (in Portuguese). Proc. 2nd Portuguese-Brazilian Geotechnical Congress, Aveiro, 536p.
Sousa, L.R. (2004). Accidents and damage associated with underground works (in Portuguese). Special Issue of Geotecnia no. 100, Lisbon, pp. 293-310.
Sousa, L.R. (2004). Underground works in transport infrastructures (in Portuguese). Final LNEC Report 459/04, Lisbon, 22p.
Miranda, T.; Correia, A.G.; Sousa, L.R. (2004). Geomechanical parameters in granite formations obtained by knowledge based system. 16th European Young Geotechnical Engineers Conference EYGEC, Vienna, pp. 271-280.
Miranda, T.; Correia, A.G.; Sousa, L.R.; Lima, C. (2004). Numerical modeling of a large underground powerhouse using geomechanical parameters obtained by artificial intelligence techniques. ISRM Int. Symposium, Kyoto.
Sousa, L.R.; Sousa, R.L. (2004). The importance of monitoring in the safety of underground structures (in Portuguese). Course Tunnelling2004 – Design, Constructive Processes and Exploration of Tunnels, Lisbon, 35p.
Oliveira, M.; Sousa, L.R. (2004). Inspection and safety control of railway tunnels. Pragal, Feijó, Alcântara, Alhadas and São Bento tunnels. LNEC Report, Lisbon, 166p.
Sousa, L.R. (2004). Observation of Ribeira de Sela slope until end 2003 (in Portuguese). LNEC Report, Lisbon, 43p.
Sousa, L.R. (2004). Observation of Serra do Pilar tunnel until December 2003 (in Portuguese). LNEC Report, Lisbon.
Sousa, L.R. (2004). Observation of the Rossio tunnel. Observation results until July 2003 (in Portuguese). LNEC, Report 23/04, Lisbon, 82p.
Sousa, L.R.; Lemos, J.V.; Sousa, A. (2004). Observation of the Rossio tunnel. Execution of rehabilitation works at km 0.900 (in Portuguese). LNEC Report, Lisbon.