Oxford history of the christian church

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See below, Notitiae Episcopatuum, section 4, pp. 310-12.


Corpus, III, Nov. 6, Praef., pp. 35-6.


Corpus, III, Nov. 109, Epilogue, pp. 519-20.


Cf. E. Kitzinger, “The Cult of the Images in the Age before Iconoclasm,” DOP, 8 (1954), 121-8 and A. Cameron, “Images of Authority: Élites and Icons in late Sixth-Century Byzantium,” Past and Present, 84 (1979), 3-25; reprinted in Byzantium and the Classical Tradition, ed. M. Mullett and R. Scott (Birmingham, 1981).


De Cerimoniis, I. 91 (CB, I, p. 411).


Grabar, Iconoclasme, 34 and passim, illustrates the widespread use of figural representation to further imperial prestige.


Cf. Pseudo-Codinus, ch. 4, pp. 234-5.


Corpus, III, Nov. 105, 2, 4, p. 507.


PG119, col. 949B, to Const. Cabasilas, Resp. 1; and Pitra, Analecta Sacra, vol. 6 (Paris-Rome, 1891), Resp. 4, col. 634; RP V, p. 429.


J. Schmidt, Des Basilius aus Achrida, Erzbischofs von Thessalonich, bisher unedierte Dialoge (Munich, 1901), p. 41.


So called from the domed hall in which it was held.


See above, ch. VI passim.


On the imperial position see H.-G. Beck, “Nomos, Kanon und Staatsraison in Byzanz,” Österreichische Ak. der Wiss., Philosoph.-Hist.Kl., Sitzungsberichte 384 (Vienna, 1981).


On these basic codifications and the subsequent stream of commentaries and minor legal writings see Beck, Kirche, sub Kanonisches Recht; H. Scheltema, “Byzantine Law,” CMH IV (2), and DDrC 2, “Byzantin: Droit canonique” (C. de Clercq); see also the Vatican series issued by the Codificazione Canonica Orientale, Fonti, fasc. 8.


'On the offices of chartophylax and protecdicus', RP IV. 530 ff.


On Balsamon and his programme see DDrC vol. 2, cols. 76-83 (E. Herman); cf. H. Scheltema, op. cit., for comments on the legal background to Balsamon's work.


Tit. I, cap. 2, schol. 2, RP I. pp. 37-8.


See V. Grumel, “Les Réponses canoniques à Marc d'Alexandrie, leur caractère officiel, leur double rédaction”', EO, 38 (1939), 321-33.


PG138, col. 965.


PG119, cols. 981-4 (here attributed to John, bishop of Kitros, but probably by Demetrius Chomatianus).


PG119, cols. 960-4.


Listed by L. Stiernon, DHGE 14, cols. 201-5 (with bibliography).


For Chomatianus's rulings and letters see Pitra, Analecta Sacra, 6, passim. This collection affords rich and graphic material for social and economic as well as ecclesiastical affairs.


Extracts from the twelfth-century canonists and Chomatianus on ecclesiastical problems can be found in Latin translation in Codificazione Canonica Orientale, Fonti, serie II, fasc. 5, Textus Selecti ex Operibus Commentatorum Byzantinorum Iuris Ecclesiastici, ed. I. Croce with introduction by E. Herman (Vatican, 1939).


See DDrC 2. 920-5 (E. Herman); most of his writings are in RP VI and PG144.


Hexabiblos, ed. W. E. Heimbach (Leipzig, 1851) and K. Pitsakes (Athens, 1971) and for his other works see PG150; see also Hunger, Profanliteratur, II, 474f. and PLP 1347.

27 The definitive text with trans. and commentary is now J. Darrouzès, Notitiae Episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae (Paris, 1981); see also Beck, Kirche, 148-88, and 188-99 for the Notitiae of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.


See N. Oikonomides, Les Listes de préséance byzantines des IXe et Xe siècles (text, trans. and full commentary, Paris, 1972); Pseudo-Codinos; Philotheus's protocol for ceremonies (dated 899) was included in the De Cerimoniis.


De Sacris Ordinationibus, PG 155, cols. 440B-C; see also Bréhier, II. 480 and Miscellanea G. Mercati (Studi e Testi 123, Vatican, 1946), III. 368-72.


In the brief comments which follow I am much indebted to the work of Jean Darrouzés; see particularly his Offikia, Registre, and Documents inédits. Bréhier, II gives a brief account but since he published in 1949 understandably he is rarely able to give change and development as Darrouzès does.


cf. Darrouzès, Offikia, 60 and 540-1.


See H. Hunger, 'Zum Stil und zur Sprache des Patriarchatsregister von Konstantinopel. Rhetorik im Dienste der orthodoxen Hierarchle', Studien, 11-60.


See MM 1-2, Darrouzès, Registre, Hunger, Register and GR, vols. 5-6.


Documents did get lost; John V had to apply to Venice for copies of certain treaties as his own had got lost. See J. Chrysostomides, 'Venetian Commercial Privileges . . .', Studi veneziani, 12 (1970), 273.


See R. Potz, Patriarche und Synode in Konstantinopel . . . (Vienna, 1971).


DR703 (c.964) and DR726 (repudiation by John I Tzimisces on his accession, Dec. 969).


GR900 (Nov. 1071, though Romanus had by then been deposed).


PG138, col. 93 BC (Carthage, can. 16); RP III. 349.


See Darrouzès, Documents inèdits; see also the comments of P. KarlinHayter, 'Notes sur quatre documents d'ecclèsiologie byzantine', REB, 37 (1979), 249-58.


See Darrouzès, Documents inèdits (with text and trans.), 116 ff.


See A. Failler, 'Le Sèjour d'Athanase II d'Alexandrie è Constantinople', REB, 35 (1977), 44.


See GR904 and DR1117.




GR1203 ff.


See also above, pt. I, ch. VII.


See Angold, 168-9 for instances of this kind.




Further details are given by E. Herman, “The Secular Church,” CMH IV (2); in general this chapter still holds, though it was in fact written in the late 50s before the appearance of much of Darrouzès's work.


See above pt. II, section 4.


Chalcedon, can. 12; see E. Chrysos, “Zur Entstehung . . . der autokephalen Embistümer,” BZ, 62 (1969), 263-86.


GR1011; N. A. Oikonomides, “Un décret synodal inédit du patriarche Jean VIII Xiphilin concernant l'élection et l'ordination des évêques,” REB, 18 (1960), 55-78.


e.g. Chalc., can. 3 and 7.


Chalc., can. 26, Nicaea II, can. 11.


As by Patriarch Alexius I in 1028 (GR835); cf. 1 Cor. 6: 1-8.






DR1071 (1081).


'Suffragan' is used in the sense of a bishop with a diocese under the metropolitan of the province in which his diocese was situated.


Cf. Quinisextum, cans. 9, 24, 50, 51, or Nicaea II, can. 16.


DR1236, see also Darrouzès, Offikia, 72-5.


Cited and discussed by Wilson, Scholars.


Janin, Églises et monastères, II and III.


Tabula Imperii Byzantini, I (general ed. H. Hunger), J. Koder and F. Hild, Hellas und Thessalia (Vienna, 1976, the series is in progress); J. Koder, Negroponte . . . (Vienna, 1973, publication of the Commission für die Tabula Imp. Byz.).


See Lemerle, “Le Testament d'Eustathius Boïlas (Avril 1059),” Cinq études, 15-63.


See section 9 below on monasteries. This characteristic proliferation of pious foundations in towns is commented on by Dagron, “Le Christianisme dans la ville byzantine.”


Details are given by E. Herman, “Die kirchlichen Einkünfte des byzantinischen Niederklerus,” OCP, 8(1942), 378-442.


RP IV. 471-3 (Resp. 31), cited by Herman, CMH IV (2), 125 (= PG 138, col. 980, Resp. 28).


GR 851.


See E. Herman, ' “Le professioni vietate al clero bizantino”', OCP, 10 (1944), 23-44.


See B. Ferjanc+̆ić, 'Ogled o parohijskom sves+̆tenstvu u poznoj vizantiji ('On Parish Clergy in Late Byzantium'), ZRVI, 22 (1983), 59-115.


The case for Palestinian monasticism is well put by D. J. Chitty, The Desert a City: An Introduction to the Study of Egyptian and Palestinian Monasticism under the Christian Empire (Oxford, 1966).


The best introduction to the intimidating multitude of regulations governing Byzantine monasticism is to be found in the Codificazione canonica orientale, Fonti, ser. II, fasc. 10, De monachico statu iuxta disciplinam byzantinam, ed. P. de Meester (Vatican, 1942) which cites many of the relevant sources (with Latin trans.); see F. Dölger review, BZ, 45(1952), 82-4.


P. Charanis, “The Monk as an Element of Byzantine Society,” DOP, 25 (1971), 72.


There is an excellent account of the layout of Byzantine monasteries in A. K. Orlandos, Mοναστηςιακὴ'˒Aςχιτεκονική, 2nd edn. (Athens, 1958); this is based on surviving monuments including Hosios Meletios. For the history of the house see A. Orlandos, “'H μονή του+̑ οσίου Mελετίου καὶ παςαλαΊςια αὐτηζ,” ' Aςχειον τω+̑ν Bυξ0300αντινω+̑ν Mνημείων τηζ 'Eλλα+́δοζ, 5 (1939-40),4-118.


Not to be confused with the catholicon or general church served by secular clergy.


See P. Speck, Theodoros Studites: Jamben auf verschiedene Gegenstände (= Supplementa Byzantina, 1, Berlin, 1968), text, trans. and commentary.


Variously known as 'the monastery of Studius' or incorrectly as 'the Studium', this was the monastery of St John Baptist in the district of Studius; see Janin, Églises et monastères, III, 430 ff. and Dagron, 'Le Christianisme dans la ville byzantine',8-9.


See Lemerle, Humanisme byzantin, 121-8.


The library catalogue and subsequent history of the library was analysed by C. Diehl, ' Le Trésor et la bibliothèque de Patmos au commencement du 13e siècle', BZ, 1 (1892), 488-525 (with text of the 1201 inventory); much work on the Patmos archives has since been done by members of the Hellenic Research Centre, see E. L. Vranousiet al., Συμμεικτα, I (Athens, 1966), passim; and E. L. Vranousi, T° α+̑γιολογικ° κείμενα του̑ οσίου Xςιστοδοε+́λου . . . (Athens, 1966). On the inventory see now C. Astruc, TM, 8 (1981), 15-30.


Symeon the New Theologian, Catecheses, vol. III, no. 26, pp. 68-97.


On the strength of Greek influence in South Italy see A. Pertusi' Rapporti tra il monachesimo italo-greco ed il monachesimo bizantino nell'alto medio evo', La chiesa greca in Italia dall' VIII al XVI secolo (Atti del convegno storico interecclesiale, Bari, 1969; Padua, 1972), II. 473-500.


See Janin Églises et monastères, III. 430-40.


See Janin, Églises et monastères, II, section VI, passim.


On the early settlements and the development of the central assembly see Actes de Protaton, ed. D. Papachryssanthou (= Archives de l' Athos, 7, Paris, 1975), passim.


This indispensable body of material is now in process of being edited in the series Archives de l'Athos, Actes. See Actes de Lavra, I-IV (= Archives 5, 8, 10, 11, Paris, 1970-82); Actes de Saint Pantéléèmon (= Archives 12, Paris, 1982), ed. P. Lemerle et al. and other volumes.


See the firsthand experiences of Hammond, The Waters of Marah; who lived in northern Greece in the early 1950s, and D. M. Nicol, Meteora, 2nd ed. (London, 1975).


The many monastic services to those outside the house are discussed by D. J. Constantelos, Byzantine Philanthropy and Social Welfare(New Brunswick, 1968).


See Lemerle, Cinq études, on Gregory Pacurianus and Michael Attaliates; for Patmos see E. Vranousi, above, note 77. For Pacurianus's Typikon now see P. Gautier, REB, 42(1984), 5-145.


For the effect on towns of these pious foundations and the economic implications see Dagron, “Le Christianisme dans la ville byzantine”: see also Dagron's comments on A. Failler paper “Le Monachisme byzantin aux XIe et XIIe siècles: Aspects sociaux et économiques,” Cahiers d'histoire, 20(1975), 299-301.


See P. Charanis, “The Monastic Properties and the State in the Byzantine Empire,” DOP, 4(1948) 53-118. On the general legal aspects of monastic property see J. M. Konidares, Tòδíκαιον τηȄ0çμονăστηριăκηȄ0çπεριουσίăç α+̧πòτουȄ0 9ου μὲϏρτου+̑ 12ου ăἰω+̑νοç (Athens, 1979).


Commonly referred to in modern usage as a charisticarium, but see P. Lemerle, “Un Aspect du rôle des monastères à Byzance: Les monastères donnés à des laïcs, les charisticaires,” Compte rendu à l'Acad. Inscript. et Belles Lettres (Paris, 1967, reprinted Variorum, London, 1978), pp. 9-28; H. Ahrweiler, “Le Charisticariat et les autres formes d'attribution de couvents aux Xe-XIe siècles,” ZRVI, 10 (1967), 1-27 (reprinted Variorum, London, 1971); on the charisticium in general see E. Herman, “Ricerche sulle istituzioni monastiche bizantine . . .” OCP, 6 (1940), 293-375 and in DDrC, 3 (1942), cols. 611-17.


GR931; DR1115; see J. Darrouzès, “Dossier sur le Charisticariat,” Polychronion: Festschrift F. Dölger (Heidelberg, 1966), 150-65.


From his Letters Psellus had an interest in various houses in the Mount Olympus region and made some efforts on their behalf; see Janin, Églises et monastères, II. 161 and 167.


MM 5. 332. 'Epidosis' was the handing over of a house to the charge of another monastery or to an ecclesiastic who drew the revenue; it is often referred to in sources of the later middle ages when the maintenance of refugee bishops was a problem.


For examples of far-flung monastic travel see A. E. Laiou-Thomadakis, “Saints and Society in the late Byzantine Empire,” Charanis Studies: Essays in Honor of Peter Charanis, ed. A. E. Laiou-Thomadakis(New Brunswick, 1980), 84-114.


There is no satisfactory, detailed and comprehensive survey of the Byzantine Church known to me; see below pp. 369 ff.


The word 'liturgy' has a double meaning; it can stand either for the eucharistic service or for church services in general.


Modern writers sometimes use 'matins', sometimes 'lauds', for this dawn service, so for clarity the Greek 'orthros' is used here.


Corpus, II, Codex, I, 3, 41(42), p. 28.


The sixteenth-century Venetian press was the first to print Orthodox liturgical books and it reprinted them at intervals. They continue to be used in many East Mediterranean monasteries. There are also some more modern editions, see the Festal Menaion, p. 12. The question of the redaction used in Venice is examined by A. Raes, “Les Livres liturgiques grecs publiés à Venise,” Mélanges E. Tisserant, III(ST 233, Vatican, 1964). He shows how individual 'correctors' could determine content, change the rubric, and add or delete, often without the authorization of the Great Church, though in fairness it should be added that changes were not so drastic as to affect the Orthodox liturgical tradition.


For a brief survey of the early period up to the seventh century see H. Chadwick, The Early Church(London, 1967), ch. 18.


See Wellesz, Byzantine Music and Hymnography.


See O. Strunk, “The Byzantine Office at Hagia Sophia,” DOP, 9-10 (1956), 175-202.


De Sacra Precatione, PG 155, col. 556.


See R. Salomon, “Zu Ignatij von Smolensk,” Beitriäge . . . Theodor Schiemann (Berlin, 1907), 260-5 (German trans.), and S. P. Khitrovo, Itinéraires russes en Orient (Geneva, 1889), 143-7 (French trans., needs revision).


These are listed in Wellesz, Byzantine Music and Hymnography, and in the Festal Menaion which also gives definitions of technical terms used in Orthodox services, as does D. Touliatos-Banker, “The Byzantine Orthros,” Byzantina, 9 (1977), 351-7.


Much is being done by the Pontifical Institute of Oriental Studies and a glance through its periodical OCP and its publications in the OCA will indicate work examining in detail the development of Orthodox offices and liturgy. There is also a good brief general survey in DS, 11 (1982), 'Office divin byzantin' (M. Arranz), cols. 710-20, though this does in effect give more on the monastic office of the Sabaite tradition than cathedral services.


See D. Touliatos-Banker, The Byzantine Orthros Byzantina, 9 (1977), 325-50 and Festal Menaion, 'Plans of the Services'.


Kathisma also has the meaning of a verse (troparion) at the end of a section (also called a kathisma) of the psalter and in the Festal Menaion this is translated as 'sessional hymn'.


The biblical canticles were songs usually in praise of some special occasion, such as Moses' hymn of victory after the crossing of the Red Sea (Exod. 15) or the Magnificat (Luke I). In the Middle Ages they were usually counted as nine, the ninth and tenth being taken together (Magnificat and Benedictus). They are listed in Wellesz, Byzantine Music and Hymnography, 38.


See Lenten Triodion, 419. On the authorship cf. C. Trypanis, Fourteen Early Byzantine Cantica (Vienna, 1968).


See J. M. Hussey, “The Canons of John Mauropous,” JRS, 37 (1947), 70-3, and E. Folieri, Giovanni Mauropode, metropolita di Eucaita, otto canoni paracletici a N. S. Gesù Cristo (Rome, 1967).


Much of this is translated in the Lenten Triodion.


The word typicon, also used of a monastic foundation charter, has the general meaning of 'direction' or 'rulings'.


Monastic offices according to the Typicon of St Sabas are set out in DS, 11, cols. 716-19.


Wellesz, Byzantine Music and Hymnography, ch. 9.


Orat. dom. exp., PG 90, col. 905D; Mystagogia, 21 PG 91, cols. 696D697A.


See R. Taft, How Liturgies grow: The Evolution of the Byzantine “Divine Liturgy,” OCP, 43 (1977), 355-78; see also his 'Mount Athos: a Late Chapter in the History of the Byzantine Rite', DOP, 42 (1988), 179-94.


R. Taft, “The Pontifical Liturgy of the Great Church according to a Twelfth-Century Diataxis in Codex British Museum Add. 34060,” OCP, 45 (1979), 279-307 and 46 (1980), 89-124.


See T. F. Mathews, The Early Churches of Constantinople: Architecture and Liturgy (London, 1971); O. Demus, Mosaic Decoration: Aspects of Monumental Art in Byzantium (London, 1948); C. Mango, Byzantine Architecture (New York, 1976), and C. Walter, Art and Ritual of the Byzantine Church (London, 1982).


The best guides to these commentaries are Bornert, Commentaires, and H.-J. Schulz, Die byzantinische Liturgie: Glaubenszeugnis und Symbolgestalt, 2nd edn. (Trier, 1980); there is a good general introduction by R. Taft, The Liturgy of the Great Church: An Initial Synthesis of Structure and Interpretation on the Eve of Iconoclasm, DOP34-5 (1980-1).


The passage is cited by R. Taft, op. cit. 72-3.


Trans. S. Salaville, 2nd edn. with R. Bornert et al. (SC, 4 bis, Paris, 1967) and J. M. Hussey and P. A. McNulty, Commentary on the Divine Liturgy (London, 1960 and 1978).


See Nicholas Cabasilas, Commentary, ch. 1, p. 28 and ch. 45, p. 102.


See D. Balfour, Politico-historical works of Symeon Archbishop of Thessalonica (1461/17-1429): Text and commentary (Vienna, 1979) and 'Eςγα θεολοʳικα+́ (Avα+́λεκτα Bλατα+́δωυ, 34, Thessalonica, 1981); Symeon's liturgical works are being edited by J. M. Phountoules, I, Eὐχαྲྀ και “Yμυοι (Thessalonica, 1968); see also PG 155.


See Bornert, Commentaires, 248-63.


PG155, De Sacro Templo, ch. 131, col. 340 A.


PG155, Expositio de divino templo, ch. 86, col. 700D-701B.


Basil, Ep. 234 (edn. Loeb, III, p. 372).


To examine the differing approaches of individual spiritual writers is outside the scope of this work. Guidance may be found in the Dictionnaire de spiritualité (bibl.) and many texts have appeared in the Sources Chrétiennes (with French trans.); see also Beck, Kirche (bibl. to about 1957).


See V. Desprez, ed. and trans., Pseudo-Macaire, æuvres Spirituelles I (SC 275, Paris, 1980 with bibl.).


Sometimes known as Mark the Hermit, but see K. T. Ware, 'The Sacrament of Baptism and the Ascetic Life in the Teaching of Mark the Monk', Studia Patristica, X, ed. F. L. Cross (Berlin, 1970), 441-52. See also H. Chadwick, “The Identity and Date of Mark the Hermit,” ECR 4 (1972), 125-30 and O. Hesse, “Was Mark the Monk a sixth-century Higumen near Tarsus?” ECR 8 (1976), 174-8.


See Diadoque de Photicé, æuvres spirituelles, ed. and trans. E. des Places (SC 5 bis, Paris, 1955).


Trans. Lazarus Moore (London, 1959).


Eng. trans. from P. Bedjan's edn. of the original Syriac (Paris, 1909) by A. J. Wensinck, Mystic Treatises of Isaac of Nineveh (Amsterdam, 1923, re-ed. Wiesbaden, 1967).


There are critical editions in the SC of Symeon the New Theologian's works (with trans.) by J. Darrouzès (Theological and Ethical Treatises), B. Krivocheine (Catecheses), and J. Koder (Hymns).

135 See K. Ware, “The Jesus Prayer in St Gregory of Sinai,” ECR 4 (1972), 3-22.

136 See PG 120, cols. 531-2, note 19.

137 See R. Janin, “Les Processions religieuses à Byzance,” REB 24 (1966), 69-88.

138 See the experiences of P. Hammond, Waters of Marah; and there is a firsthand description of life on Mount Athos in the 1950s by C. Cavarnos, Anchored in God: An inside Account of Life, Art, and Thought on the Holy Mountain of Athos (Athens, 1959). There is a good introduction to the thought and practice of the Orthodox Church in P. Evdokimov, L'Orthodoxie (Neuchâtel and Paris, 1959); see also the brief comments in T. Ware, The Orthodox Church (London, 1963), pt. II and J. Meyendorff, Byzantine Theology: Historical Trends and Doctrinal Themes (London and Oxford, 1975), pt. II.

139 Cf. J. Meyendorff, The Byzantine Legacy in the Orthodox Church (New York, 1982), 225-9.

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