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Thurber, D.N. (1983), Write on - with Continuous Stroke Point. Academic Therapy, 18 (4), 389-395

Milsom, I., Forssman, L., Biber, B., Dottori, O. and Sivertsson, R. (1983), Measurement of Cardiac Stroke Volume During Cesarean-Section - A Comparison Between Impedance Cardiography and the Dye Dilution Technique. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 27 (5), 421-426

Langjensen, T., Berning, J. and Jacobsen, E. (1983), Stroke Volume Measured by Pulsed Ultrasound Doppler and M-Mode Echocardiography. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 27 (6), 454-457

Settergren, G. (1986), The Calculation of Left-Ventricular Stroke Work Index. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 30 (6), 450-452

Ekman, L.G., Milsom, I., Arvidsson, S., Biber, B., Martinell, S. and Sjoqvist, B.A. (1990), Clinical-Evaluation of An Ensemble-Averaging Impedance Cardiograph for Monitoring Stroke Volume During Spontaneous Breathing. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 34 (3), 190-196


Benit, E., Degeest, H., Denef, B. and Vandewerf, F. (1990), Early and 3-Months Follow-Up Results in 22 Adult Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Valvuloplasty. Acta Cardiologica, 45 (6), 425-440.

Abstract: Between April 1988 and October 1989, 22 adult patients with isolated or predominant severe mitral stenosis underwent Percutaneous Transvenous Mitral Valvuloplasty (PTMV). In 20 patients, a transseptal double balloon technique was used; in the last 2 patients, dilatation was performed using the Inoue balloon. Immediately after the procedure, the mitral valve area (MVA) rose from 1.2 +/- 0.3 to 2.2 +/- 0.8 cm2 (p < 0.0001) using the hemodynamic method and from 1.1 +/- 0.4 to 1.9 +/- 0.4 cm2 (p < 0.0001) using a Doppler technique. The mean left atrial pressure decreased from 20.3 +/- 6.0 to 10.5 +/- 5.0 mm Hg (p < 0.0001). After the procedure, severe mitral regurgitation or significant iatrogenic interatrial septum defect did not occur. Two cerebral accidents were observed. One patient had a severe stroke with aphasia and hemiplegia but recovered within 3 months. The other patient had a minor dysarthric event, which resolved completely after 24 hours. Three months follow-up data in 16 patients revealed that they all were in NYHA class I or II. Restenosis occured in 1 case. In the whole group of patients the MVA calculated by Doppler examination was similar to immediately after PTMV (1.9 +/- 0.4 versus 1.9 +/- 0.7 cm2)


Assmann, I. and Muller, E. (1990), Prognostic-Significance of Different Qt-Intervals in the Body- Surface Ecg in Patients with Acute Myocardial-Infarction and in Patients with Acute Or Chronic Cerebral Processes. Acta Cardiologica, 45 (6), 501-504.

Abstract: In 73 patients after AMI, 131 patients with cerebral stroke and in 116 patients with cerebral tumours the QT(c)-intervals in different ECG leads were measured. In about 30% of pts with AMI there were prolonged (greater-than-or-equal-to 440 ms) QT(c)-values. Patients with AMI suffering from VT or non- survivors had the longest QT(c)-values. Also in patients with cerebral stroke and prolonged QT-values (greater-than-or-equal- to 440 ms) the risk of dying was significantly higher than in patients that survived. The prolongation of QT(c) in patients with cerebral tumours are not correlated with prognosis but with the severity of neurological disturbances

Ammerer, H.P., Bock, F. and Perneczky, G. (1981), Extra-Intracranial Anastomosis As An Emergency Operation for Impending Stroke After Closure of A Sinus Cavernosus Fistula. Acta Chirurgica Austriaca, 13 (3), 63-65

Tragl, K.H. (1983), Risk-Factors and Atherosclerotic Complications in Vienna - Myocardial-Infarction and Stroke. Acta Medica Austriaca, 10 (1), 1-10

Oder, W., Kollegger, H., Zeiler, K. and Deecke, L. (1989), Considering Hemodilution Therapy in Stroke. Acta Medica Austriaca , 16 (5), 109-114

Maciejek, Z., Chmielewski, H., Czernicki, J. and Pawlak, J. (1981), Effect of Low-Molecular Dextran on the Dynamics of Changes in Serum and Erythrocyte Lipids in Patients with Ischemic Cerebral Stroke. Acta Medica Polona, 22 (3), 239-249

Asplund, K., Eriksson, S., Hagg, E., Lithner, F., Strand, T. and Wester, P.O. (1982), Hyperosmolar Non-Ketotic Coma in Diabetic Stroke Patients. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 212 (6), 407-411

Joensen, P. (1982), Stroke in An Isolated Population - Incidence on the Faroes During 1962-1975. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 212 (5), 309-311

Evans, J.G. (1983), Hypertension and Stroke in An Elderly Population. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 22-32

Olsen, T.S. (1983), Should Induced Hypertension Or Hypotension Ever be Used in the Treatment of Stroke. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 113-120

Britton, M., Hultman, E., Murray, V. and Sjoholm, H. (1983), The Diagnostic-Accuracy of Csf Analyses in Stroke. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 214 (1), 3-13

Sigurdsson, G., Sigfusson, N., Thorsteinsson, T., Olafsson, O., Davidsson, D. and Samuelsson, S. (1983), Screening for Health Risks - How Useful Is A Questionnaire Response Showing Positive Family History of Myocardial- Infarction, Hypertension Or Cerebral Stroke. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 213 (1), 45-50

Heliovaara, M., Reunanen, A., Aromaa, A., Knekt, P., Aho, K. and Suhonen, O. (1984), Validity of Hospital Discharge Data in A Prospective Epidemiological-Study on Stroke and Myocardial-Infarction. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 216 (3), 309-315

Harmsen, P. and Wilhelmsen, L. (1984), Stroke Registration in Goteborg, Sweden, 1971-75 - Clinical Profile and Prognosis. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 215 (3), 239-248

Viitanen, M., Winblad, B. and Asplund, K. (1987), Autopsy-Verified Causes of Death After Stroke. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 222 (5), 401-408

Viitanen, M., Eriksson, S., Asplund, K., Wester, P.O. and Winblad, B. (1987), Determinants of Long-Term Mortality After Stroke. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 221 (4), 349-356

Himmelmann, A., Hansson, L., Svensson, A., Harmsen, P., Holmgren, C. and Svanborg, A. (1988), Predictors of Stroke in the Elderly. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 224 (5), 439-443

Axelsson, K., Asplund, K., Norberg, A. and Alafuzoff, I. (1988), Nutritional-Status in Patients with Acute Stroke. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 224 (3), 217-224

Asplund, K., Tuomilehto, J., Stegmayr, B., Wester, P.O. and Tunstallpedoe, H. (1988), Diagnostic-Criteria and Quality-Control of the Registration of Stroke Events in the Monica Project. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 26-39

Manev, H., Favaron, M., Vicini, S. and Guidotti, A. (1990), Ganglioside-Mediated Protection from Glutamate-Induced Neuronal Death. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 50 (4-5), 475-488.

Abstract: Glutamate, an excitatory amino acid (EAA), plays an important role in neuron to neuron signaling by binding to specific receptors. When, during neuronal firing, quanta of glutamate are released from the nerve terminal, they interact with the receptors for a few milliseconds and, thereafter, glutamate is promptly cleared by appropriate mechanisms. The neurotoxic action of glutamate arises from its capacity to trigger a pathophysiological chain of events when it acts continuously and abusively on its receptors (e.g., during cerebral edema associated with trauma, ischemia, stroke). In primary cultures of cerabellar granule neurons the abusive stimulation of EAA receptors by glutamate amplifies pathologicaly two early intracellular signals: free cytosolic Ca++ and the translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) from cytosol to neuronal membrane. Both of these signals persist unabated even after removal of glutamate from the incubation medium. Natural gangliosides and their semisynthetic derivatives protect neurons from glutamate toxicity by blocking the consequences of receptor abuse but they leave physiological responses to glutamate unaffected; hence they represent a prototype of a "receptor abuse dependent antagonist" (RADA)


Bell, B.A. and Ambrose, J. (1982), Smoking and the Risk of A Stroke. Acta Neurochirurgica, 64 (1-2), 1-7

Bozzao, L., Fantozzi, L.M., Bastianello, S., Bozzao, A. and Fieschi, C. (1989), Occlusion of the Extracranial Internal Carotid-Artery in the Acute Stroke - Angiographic Findings Within 6 Hours. Acta Neurochirurgica, 100 (1-2), 39-42

Dereuck, J., Decoster, W. and Vandereecken, H. (1985), Cerebrospinal-Fluid Cytology in Acute Ischemic Stroke. Acta Neurologica Belgica, 85 (3), 133-136

Berthier, M. and Starkstein, S. (1987), Acute Atypical Psychosis Following A Right-Hemisphere Stroke. Acta Neurologica Belgica, 87 (3), 125-131

Lowenthal, A. (1988), European Stroke Prevention Study. Acta Neurologica Belgica, 88 (1), 14-18

Gautier, J.C. (1988), Stroke Units. Acta Neurologica Belgica, 88 (1), 46-52

Poeck, K. (1988), Intraarterial Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Stroke. Acta Neurologica Belgica, 88 (1), 35-45

Olsen, T.S., Larsen, B., Lassen, N.A., Skriver, E.B. and Herning, M. (1982), Severe Hyperemia in Necrotic Brain-Tissue Due to Partial Or Total Reperfusion of Cerebral Infarcts in Acute Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 65 152-153

Sorensen, P.S., Boysen, G., Jensen, G. and Schnohr, P. (1982), Prevalence of Stroke in A District of Copenhagen - the Copenhagen-City-Heart-Study. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 66 (1), 68-81

Olsen, T.S., Larsen, B., Herning, M., Skriver, E.B. and Lassen, N.A. (1982), Evidence of An Ischemic Penumbra in Collaterally Perfused Brain-Tissue - A Rcbf Study of Acute Stroke Patients. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 65 154-155

Hemmingsen, R., Mejsholm, B., Boysen, G. and Engell, H.C. (1982), Intellectual Function in Patients with Transient Ischemic Attacks (Tia) Or Minor Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 66 (2), 145-159

Olsen, T.S. (1982), Clinical-Feature and Prognosis in A Stroke Population - A Consecutive and Prospective-Study of 106 Stroke Patients. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 65 174-175

Sivenius, J., Riekkinen, P., Pyorala, K. and Heinonen, O.P. (1982), Epidemiology of Stroke in Kuopio Area, Finland. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 65 173

Sorensen, P.S., Pedersen, H., Marquardsen, J., Petersson, H., Heltberg, A., Simonsen, N., Munck, O. and Andersen, L.A. (1982), Acetylsalicyclic Acid in the Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Reversible Ischemic Attacks. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 65 176-177

Sivenius, J., Pyorala, K., Salonen, J., Heinonen, O. and Riekkinen, P.J. (1984), Predictive Factors in the Functional Recovery and Outcome of Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 69 279-280

Gelmers, H.J. (1984), The Effects of Nimodipine on the Clinical Course of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 69 (4), 232-239

Hillbom, M.E., Kangasaho, M. and Hjelmjager, M. (1984), Platelet-Aggregation and Thromboxane-B2 Formation After Ethanol Abuse - Is There A Relationship to Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 70 (6), 432-437

Sivenius, J., Pyorala, K., Salonen, J., Heinonen, O. and Riekkinen, P.J. (1984), The Significance of Physiotherapy in the Recovery of Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 69 281-282

Kotila, M., Waltimo, O., Niemi, M.L. and Laaksonen, R. (1984), Does A Single Stroke Precede Dementia. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 69 335-336

Mettinger, K.L., Soderstrom, C.E. and Neiman, J. (1984), Stroke Before 55 Years of Age at Karolinska-Hospital 1973-77 - A Study of 399 Well-Defined Cases - Risk Indicators and Etiological Considerations. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 70 (6), 415-422

Olsen, T.S., Bruhn, P. and Oberg, G. (1984), Cause of Aphasia in Stroke Patients with Subcortical Lesions. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 69 311-312

Olsen, T.S., Skriver, E.B. and Herning, M. (1984), Cause of Ischemic Stroke - Embolism Or Thrombosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 69 309-310

Bogousslavsky, J. and Regli, F. (1985), Anticoagulant-Induced Intracerebral Bleeding in Brain Ischemia - Evaluation in 200 Patients with Tias, Emboli from the Heart, and Progressing Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 71 (6), 464-471

Matiasguiu, J., Martinezvazquez, J., Ruibal, A., Colomer, R., Boada, M. and Codina, A. (1986), Myelin Basic-Protein and Creatine-Kinase Bb Isoenzyme As Csf Markers of Intracranial Tumors and Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 73 (5), 461-465

Vorstrup, S., Paulson, O.B. and Lassen, N.A. (1986), Cerebral Blood-Flow in Acute and Chronic Ischemic Stroke Using Xe-133 Inhalation Tomography. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 74 (6), 439-451

Ferrarese, C., Bassi, S., Frattola, L., Locatelli, P., Piolti, R. and Trabucchi, M. (1986), Different Patterns of Csf Neurotransmitter Metabolism in Patients with Left Or Right Hemispheric Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 73 (6), 581-585

Radhakrishnan, K., Ashok, P.P., Sridharan, R. and Mousa, M.E. (1986), Stroke in the Young - Incidence and Pattern in Benghazi, Libya. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 73 (4), 434-438

Matiasguiu, J., Davalos, A., Pico, M., Monasterio, J., Vilaseca, J. and Codina, A. (1987), Low-Dose Acetylsalicylic-Acid (Asa) Plus Dipyridamole Versus Dipyridamole Alone in the Prevention of Stroke in Patients with Reversible Ischemic Attacks. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 76 (6), 413-421

Wade, D.T. and Hewer, R.L. (1987), Motor Loss and Swallowing Difficulty After Stroke - Frequency, Recovery, and Prognosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 76 (1), 50-54

Wester, P., Puu, G., Reiz, S., Winblad, B. and Wester, P.O. (1987), Increased Monoamine Metabolite Concentrations and Cholinesterase Activities in Cerebrospinal-Fluid of Patients with Acute Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 76 (6), 473-479

Jura, E. (1987), Gastrointestinal Disturbances in Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 76 (3), 168-171

Norrving, B. and Lowenheilm, P. (1988), Epidemiology of Stroke in Lund-Orup, Sweden, 1983-85 - Incidence of 1St Stroke and Age-Related-Changes in Subtypes. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 78 (5), 408-413

Oder, W., Binder, H., Baumgartner, C., Zeiler, K. and Deecke, L. (1988), Is Aphasia An Additional Prognostic Factor in Ischemic Stroke with Regard to the Severity of Hemiparesis in the Subacute Stage. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 78 (2), 85-89

Yamanouchi, H., Shimada, H., Tomonaga, M. and Matsushita, S. (1989), Recurrence of Embolic Stroke in Non-Valvular Atrial- Fibrillation (Nvaf) - An Autopsy Study. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 80 (2), 123-129

Asplund, K. (1989), Randomized Clinical-Trials of Hemodilution in Acute Ischemic Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 80 22-30

Paci, A., Ottaviano, P., Trenta, A., Iannone, G., Desantis, L., Lancia, G., Moschini, E., Carosi, M., Amigoni, S. and Caresia, L. (1989), Nimodipine in Acute Ischemic Stroke - A Double-Blind Controlled-Study. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 80 (4), 282-286

Alvarez, J., Matiasguiu, J., Sumalla, J., Molins, M., Insa, R., Molto, J.M., Martin, R., Codina, A. and Martinezvazquez, J.M. (1989), Ischemic Stroke in Young-Adults .1. Analysis of the Etiological Subgroups. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 80 (1), 28-34

Titus, F., Montalban, J., Molins, A., Gili, J., Lopez, M. and Codina, A. (1989), Migraine-Related Stroke - Brain Infarction in Superior Cerebellar Artery Territory Demonstrated by Nuclear Magnetic- Resonance. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 79 (5), 357-360

Seyama, K., Suzuki, K., Mizuno, Y., Yoshida, M., Tanaka, M. and Ozawa, T. (1989), Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy with Lactic-Acidosis and Stroke-Like Episodes with Special Reference to the Mechanism of Cerebral Manifestations. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 80 (6), 561-568

Halliwell, B. (1989), Oxidants and the Central-Nervous-System - Some Fundamental Questions - Is Oxidant Damage Relevant to Parkinsons-Disease, Alzheimers-Disease, Traumatic Injury Or Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 80 23-33

Matiasguiu, J., Alvarez, J., Insa, R., Molto, J.M., Martin, R., Codina, A. and Martinezvazquez, J.M. (1990), Ischemic Stroke in Young-Adults .2. Analysis of Risk-Factors in the Etiologic Subgroups. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 81 (4), 314-317


Olsson, J.E. and Zbornikova, V. (1990), Neuroborreliosis Simulating A Progressive Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 81 (5), 471-474


Westling, B., Norrving, B. and Thorngren, M. (1990), Survival Following Stroke - A Prospective Population-Based Study of 438 Hospitalized Cases with Prediction According to Subtype, Severity and Age. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 81 (5), 457-463


Thorngren, M. and Westling, B. (1990), Rehabilitation and Achieved Health Quality After Stroke - A Population-Based Study of 258 Hospitalized Cases Followed for One Year. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 82 (6), 374-380.

Abstract: In a prospective population-based study rehabilitation outcome and achieved health quality was followed in consecutive hospitalized stroke patients after 3, 6 and 12 months. The study group comprised 258 patients (125 men and 133 women) admitted during the period February 1st 1986 - January 31st 1987. Most (76%) had major stroke and 24% had minor stroke. Stroke occurred predominantly among the elderly; 74% were greater-than-or-equal-to 70 years and 38% greater-than-or- equal-to 80 years. The case-fatality rate was 11% during the acute phase and 27% after one year. Of all patients 49% returned to their own homes, 2% moved into an old people's home and 38% were referred to institutions. Age of the patient and severity of the stroke influenced on the survival rates and on the discharge pattern. The amount of patients living in their own homes increased steadily with time. At discharge and after 3, 6 and 12 months 49, 54, 58, 56% of all patients and 54, 66, 73 and 77% of the survivors respectively were living at home, whereas 38, 22, 15 and 10% of all patients and 43, 27, 19 and 14% of the survivors were in institutions at the corresponding time periods. The remaining survivors were living in an old people's home. The major recovery of functional ability occurred within the first 3-6 months. At 3, 6 and 12 months 80, 82 and 81% of the surviving patients were able to walk indoors independently


Bogousslavsky, J., Adnetbonte, C., Regli, F., Vanmelle, G. and Kappenberger, L. (1990), Lone Atrial-Fibrillation and Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 82 (2), 143-146

Pasqualetti, P., Natali, G., Casale, R. and Colantonio, D. (1990), Epidemiologic Chronorisk of Stroke. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 81 (1), 71-74


Ogata, J., Fujishima, M., Tamaki, K., Nakatomi, Y., Ishitsuka, T. and Omae, T. (1981), Vascular Changes Underlying Cerebral-Lesions in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats - A Serial Section Study. Acta Neuropathologica, 54 (3), 183-188

Fredriksson, K., Auer, R.N., Kalimo, H., Nordborg, C., Olsson, Y. and Johansson, B.B. (1985), Cerebrovascular Lesions in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Acta Neuropathologica, 68 (4), 284-294

Fredriksson, K., Kalimo, H., Westergren, I., Kahrstrom, J. and Johansson, B.B. (1987), Blood-Brain-Barrier Leakage and Brain Edema in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats - Effect of Chronic Sympathectomy and Low Protein High Salt Diet. Acta Neuropathologica, 74 (3), 259-268

Fredriksson, K., Kalimo, H., Nordborg, C., Johansson, B.B. and Olsson, Y. (1988), Nerve-Cell Injury in the Brain of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Acta Neuropathologica, 76 (3), 227-237

Fredriksson, K., Kalimo, H., Nordborg, C., Olsson, Y. and Johansson, B.B. (1988), Cyst Formation and Glial Response in the Brain-Lesions of Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Acta Neuropathologica, 76 (5), 441-450

Fredriksson, K., Nordborg, C., Kalimo, H., Olsson, Y. and Johansson, B.B. (1988), Cerebral Microangiopathy in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats - An Immunohistochemical and Ultrastructural- Study. Acta Neuropathologica, 75 (3), 241-252

Milsom, I., Forssman, L., Sivertsson, R. and Dottori, O. (1983), Measurement of Cardiac Stroke Volume by Impedance Cardiography in the Last Trimester of Pregnancy. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 62 (5), 473-479

Poplingher, A.R. and Pillar, T. (1985), Hip Fracture in Stroke Patients - Epidemiology and Rehabilitation. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, 56 (3), 226-227

Llorensterol, J., Solellenas, J. and Tura, A. (1983), Stroke Due to Fibromuscular Hyperplasia of the Internal Carotid-Artery. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 72 (2), 299-301

Eegolofsson, O. and Ringheim, Y. (1983), Stroke in Children - Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 72 (3), 391-395

Caidahl, K., Mellander, M., Sabel, K.G. and Eriksson, B.O. (1986), Estimation of Stroke Volume Using Doppler Echocardiography and Left-Ventricular Echocardiographic Dimensions in Infants and Children. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, 114-119

Hamazaki, S., Okada, S., Kusaka, H., Fujii, T., Okuno, T., Kashu, I. and Midorikawa, O. (1989), Mitochondrial Myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic-Acidosis, and Stroke-Like Episodes - Report of An Autopsy. Acta Pathologica Japonica, 39 (9), 599-606

Kuikka, J.T. and Lansimies, E. (1982), Effect of Age on Cardiac Index, Stroke Index and Left- Ventricular Ejection Fraction at Rest and During Exercise As Studied by Radiocardiography. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 114 (3), 339-343

Dam, H., Pedersen, H.E. and Ahlgren, P. (1989), Depression Among Patients with Stroke. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 80 (2), 118-124

Kelbaek, H., Svendsen, J.H., Aldershvile, J., Folke, K. and Nielsen, S.L. (1988), Non-Invasive Measurement of Stroke Volume and Left-Ventricular Ejection Fraction - Radionuclide Cardiography Compared with Left-Ventricular Cardioangiography. Acta Radiologica, 29 (2), 175-178

Skriver, E.B., Olsen, T.S. and Mcnair, P. (1990), Mass Effect and Atrophy After Stroke. Acta Radiologica, 31 (5), 431-438.

Abstract: Cerebral edema, resolution of edema, and subsequent development of cerebral atrophy were studied prospectively in 83 patients with ischemic stroke with CT 3 days, 2 weeks, and 6 months poststroke. Nineteen patients had large (diameter > 3 cm), 25 medium sized (diameter greater-than-or-equal-to 1.5 less-than- or-equal-to 3 cm), and 15 lacunar infarcts (diameter < 1.5 cm). In 24 patients no infarcts were seen. Changes of Evans' ratio (ER), septum-caudate distance (S/C), and width of widest cortical sulci (SuW) were taken as markers of mass effect/atrophy. These parameters were within normal limits in most cases. However, when all CT scans performed in each patient were compared, changes of ER, S/C, and SuW became apparent as evidence of mass effect and subsequent atrophy development. Mass effect occurred in 81 percent and atrophy in 58 percent of patients with large infarcts. In patients with medium sized infarcts, mass effect occurred in 38 percent and atrophy in 45 percent


Chen, Y.M. and Fang, Y.A. (1990), 108 Cases of Hemiplegia Caused by Stroke - the Relationship Between Ct Scan Results, Clinical Findings and the Effect of Acupuncture Treatment. Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research,

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