Supporting paper 7: University Education



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University educationcover of supporting paper 7: university education


Shifting the Dial: 5 year Productivity Review — Supporting Paper No.10, Canberra, August 2017

Commonwealth of Australia 2017



ISBN 978-1-74037-635-8 (PDF)

cc by licence image.

Except for the Commonwealth Coat of Arms and content supplied by third parties, this copyright work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au. In essence, you are free to copy, communicate and adapt the work, as long as you attribute the work to the Productivity Commission (but not in any way that suggests the Commission endorses you or your use) and abide by the other licence terms.

Use of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms

For terms of use of the Coat of Arms visit the ‘It’s an Honour’ website: http://www.itsanhonour.gov.au

Third party copyright

Wherever a third party holds copyright in this material, the copyright remains with that party. Their permission may be required to use the material, please contact them directly.

Attribution

This work should be attributed as follows, Source: Productivity Commission, University Education, Shifting the Dial: 5 year Productivity Review, Supporting Paper No. 7.

If you have adapted, modified or transformed this work in anyway, please use the following, Source: based on Productivity Commission data, University Education, Shifting the Dial: 5 year Productivity Review, Supporting Paper No. 7.

An appropriate reference for this publication is:

Productivity Commission 2017, University Education, Shifting the Dial: 5 year Productivity Review, Supporting Paper No. 7, Canberra.

Publications enquiries

Media and Publications, phone: (03) 9653 2244 or email: maps@pc.gov.au


The Productivity Commission

The Productivity Commission is the Australian Government’s independent research and advisory body on a range of economic, social and environmental issues affecting the welfare of Australians. Its role, expressed most simply, is to help governments make better policies, in the longterm interest of the Australian community.

The Commission’s independence is underpinned by an Act of Parliament. Its processes and outputs are open to public scrutiny and are driven by concern for the wellbeing of the community as a whole.

Further information on the Productivity Commission can be obtained from the Commission’s website (www.pc.gov.au).






Contents


Key points 2

1 Background and existing policy settings 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Fees, contributions and government loans 4

1.3 Subsidies, grants and direct funding 9



2 Research and teaching 13

2.1 The golden child and the forgotten progeny 13

2.2 Student outcomes are often poor 15

2.3 Are universities responsible for student outcomes? 21



3 University incentives 27

3.1 Poor incentives create poor outcomes 27

3.2 Better information on outcomes 28

3.3 Consumer rights and restitution for inadequate educational quality 31

3.4 Introducing ‘skin in the game’ 33

4 Teaching and research roles 41

4.1 The teachingresearch nexus 41

4.2 The crosssubsidisation of research by teaching 43

4.3 Reducing the reliance on crosssubsidisation 49



5 Reforming the incomecontingent loan system 59

5.1 In need of HELP? — Improving the role of HELP in productive skills formation 59

5.2 Longterm increases in doubtful HELP debt 60

5.3 Addressing the structural challenges of the HELP debt system 64



References 71



Key Points

Universities are essential to Australia’s continued prosperity. Their research helps to raise productivity and living standards, while the knowledge and skills they teach to students develops human capital for better lifetime prospects, wages and productivity.

However, there are tensions between universities’ research and teaching functions. Many university staff are more interested in, and rewarded for, conducting research (due to established cultures and the importance international research rankings). Teaching therefore plays second fiddle to research, with consequences for student satisfaction, teaching quality, and graduate outcomes.

Realigning university incentives (both financial and institutional) closer towards the interests of students and taxpayers would help restore balance.

As the exact scale of any issues in teaching quality or student outcomes are difficult to determine, a first step would be improving their measurement, which would itself encourage universities to focus more on their teaching function.

The appropriateness of Australia’s existing consumer law provisions and their application to the higher education sector could also be reviewed to determine whether they provide sufficient restitution for inadequate teaching quality.

Financial incentives, such as through performancecontingent funding (as proposed in the 201718 Budget) are also a step in the right direction, although there are a range of challenges with making this approach fair and effective.

There is limited evidence that teaching quality is improved by universities jointly undertaking research and teaching (the ‘teachingresearch nexus’), which undermines the rationale for the Australian Government’s restriction that all universities must do both.

The teachingresearch nexus is also used to justify crosssubsidies from teaching to research. This can create labour market distortions, as it encourages universities to increase the number of students undertaking highmargin courses and minimise the number doing lowmargin courses, to increase research funds.

Making payments to universities for Commonwealthsupported places more costreflective would be an option to address the problem. However, it would have undesirable flowon effects to university research capacity unless offset by other funding initiatives. It cannot be recommended without a reassessment of research funding arrangements for universities, or indeed their overall operation.

Structural challenges in the Higher Education Loan Program (HELP) debt system can also result in unproductive skills formation. Increased costs for taxpayers associated with this may encourage shortterm savings that have unintended consequences (such as limiting access and efficiency) or that undermine the principles of the system.

As a solution, the Government has proposed decreasing the initial HELP repayment threshold. More debtors would make repayments, reducing the cost of the system.

This is unlikely to address many longterm structural challenges and could result in reduced labour supply and workforce participation through higher effective marginal tax rates. It could also undermine the historical ‘guaranteed returns’ principle of HELP (although it is subject to debate whether this remains a valid rationale).

A less distortionary method of reducing doubtful HELP debts would be to collect outstanding amounts from deceased estates (with adequate protections for hardship).











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