Expedition of Ibn Abi Al-Awja Al-Sulami, April 629 50 men sent to demand the allegiance of the Banu Sualym tribe to Islam Muslims: Most killed Non-Muslims: Most killed, 2 captured Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Al-Kadid), May 629  To raid the Banu al-Mulawwih tribe for booty Large amount killed, and 1 captured by Muslims Sunan Abu Dawood, 14:2672 Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Raid on Banu Layth, June 629  Attack Banu Layth, camels plundered "We killed the warriors and took the children prisoner." No numbers given, but the Muslims were "about ten men". Al-Waqidi, Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, pp. 369–370. London & New York: Routledge.
Expedition of Shuja ibn Wahb al-Asadi, June 629  Raid the Banu Amir tribe to plunder camels for booty Casulties Casulties unknown, Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Ka’b ibn 'Umair al-Ghifari, June 629  Attack Banu Quda‘a tribe because Muhammad received intelligence that they had gathered a large number of men to attack the Muslim positions 14 Muslims killed, 1 wounded Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Battle of Mu'tah, August 629  Raid the inhabitants of Mut'ah, because one of Muhammad's messenger was killed by the chief of Ma’ab or Mu’tah Muslims: 12 killed Non-Muslims: Unknown [Quran 19:71]Sahih-al Bukhari, 5:59:565, Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:565
Expedition of Amr ibn al-As, September 629 To subjugate the Banu Qudah tribe, and incite the tribes friendly to Muhammad to attack them, because of a rumour that the Banu Qudah were preparing to attack Medina and to improve Muslim prestige No casulties, Qudah tribe flees Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:644 Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah, October 629  Attack the tribe of Juhaynah and raid a caravan No casulties, caravan flees Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:44:663, Sahih Muslim, 21:4757
Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Abi Hadrad al-Aslami, 629  To kill Rifa’ah bin Qays, because Muhammad heard they were allegedly enticing the people of Qais to fight him 1 beheaded, 4 women captured by Muslims Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq  Tabari, Volume 8, History
Tabari, Volume 8, History of Islam
Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Khadirah), November or Dec 629 Attack the Ghatafan tribe because he heard that they were amassing troops and were still outside the "domain of Islam" Some killed, some captured by Muslims Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Batn Edam), December 629 To divert the attention from his intention of attacking Mecca, he despatched 8 men to attack a caravan passing through Edam 1 Muslim killed by Muslims [Quran 4:94] Sahih Muslim, 43:7176 Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Conquest of Mecca, December 629 To Conquer Mecca 5 killed by Muslims: 1. Abdullah b. Khatal 2. Fartana (slave girl) 3. Huwayrith b. Nafidh 4. Miqyas b. Subabah 5. Harith b. Talatil Quran 12:91-92, [Quran 34:49],[Quran 49:13] Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:582, Sunan Abu Dawood, 14:2678 and more Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Nakhla), December 629 To destroy al-Uzza because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes" and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices" 1 women killed by Khalid ibn Walid Al-Sunan al-Sughra Al-Kalbi, The Book of Idols
Raid of Amr ibn al-As, December 629 To destroy Suwa because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes" and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices" No casulties Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali, December 629 To destroy Manat because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes" and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices" 1 women killed by Muslims Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Al-Kalbi, The Book of Idols
Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Banu Jadhimah), January 630  Invite the Banu Jadhimah tribe to Islam Entire tribe taken prisoner, portion executed Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:628 Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq 
Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Battle of Hunayn, January 630  To attack the people of Hawazin and Thaqif for refusing to surrender to Muhammad and submit to Islam because "they thought that they were too mighty to admit or surrender" after the Conquest of Mecca Muslims: 5 killed Non-Muslims: 70 killed, 6000 women and children captured [Quran 9:25], [Quran 9:26] Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:53:370, Al-Muwatta, 21 10.19
Expedition of At-Tufail ibn 'Amr Ad-Dausi, January 630  Destroy the idol Yaguth and to secure the allegiance of the Banu Daws tribe to Islam so they can lend him catapults to use in the Siege of Taif No casulties Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Battle of Autas, 630  Defend against an attack by a league of tribes that formed an alliance to attack him. Enemy defeated, many killed by Muslims [Quran 4:24] Sahih Muslim, 8:3432, Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:612 and more Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Abu Amir Al-Ashari, January 630  Chase the enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn Muslims: 1 Killed Non-Muslims: 9 Killed Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:612, Sahih Muslim, 3:6092 Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet
Expedition of Abu Musa Al-Ashari, January 630  Chase the enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn At least 1 killed, men, women and children taken captives by Muslims Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:612 Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet
Siege of Ta'if, January 630  Attack enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn and sought refuge in the fortress of Taif Muslims: 12 killed Non-Muslims: Unknown Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:615, Sahih al-Bukhari, 9:93:572 and moreIbn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq
Expedition of Uyainah bin Hisn, April 630  Attack the Muslim tribe of Banu Tamim for refusing to pay tax (Zakat) 11 men, 21 women and 30 boys, captured by Muslims [Quran 49:1] Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir, May 630  Attack the Banu Khatham tribe to capture booty Muslims: many wounded, some killed Non-Muslims: many wounded, some killed, some women captured
Expedition of Dahhak al-Kilabi, June 630  To call the Banu Kilab tribe to embrace Islam 1 killed by Muslims Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Alqammah bin Mujazziz, July 630  Attack a group of Abyssinians (Ethiopians) who Muhammad suspected were pirates No casulties, Ethiopians flee Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Third Expedition of Dhu Qarad, July 630  Muhammad sent him to take revenge for the killing of the son of Abu Dhar Ghifari at al-Ghaba No casulties Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib, July 630  Destroy al-Qullus, an idol worshipped by pagans Many men, women and children taken captive by Muslims Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan (Udhrah and Baliy), July 630  Attack the tribes of Udhrah and Baliy, no further details Unknown casulties, Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Battle of Tabouk, October 630  Attack the Byzantine empire. Mubarakpuri claims, reason was revenge for the killing of 1 of Muhammad's ambassadors by a Christian chief of al-Balaqa, which led to the Battle of Mutah. Mubrakpuri claims this was the reason for the Battle of Tabouk also, and that there was a rumor Heraclius was preparing an attack on Muslims.  William Muir claims Heraclius wanted to prevent the recurrence of Muslim attacks such as the Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan against the Banu Udrah tribe. A tribe that was aligned to the Byzantine Empire No casulties, no enemies met Quran 9:49], [Quran 9:29], Quran9:42-48,[Quran 9:81] Sahih-al Bukhari 5:59:702, Sahih al-Bukhari, 6:60:199 and more.
Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Dumatul Jandal), October 630  Attack the Christian prince of Duma. 1 killed, 2 taken captive Sunan Abu Dawud 19:3031 Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2
Expedition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, 630  To demolish the idol al-Lat Unknown casulties, [Quran 17:73] Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet
Demolition of Masjid al-Dirar, 630  Demolish a mosque for promoting opposition No casulties, but (speculation that people may have been burnt) [Quran 9:107] Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet
Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (2nd Dumatul Jandal), April 631 Demolish an idol called Wadd, worshipped by the Banu Kilab tribe Banu Abd-Wadd and Banu Amir al-Ajdar tribe members killed by Muslims Al-Kalbi, The Book of Idols
Expedition of Surad ibn Abdullah, April 631 Ordered Surad ibn Abdullah (new convert) to war against the non-Muslim tribes in his neighbourhood Heavy casualties, people of Jurash killed Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet
Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Najran), June 631  Call on the people of Najran to embrace Islam or fight the Muslims No casulties, Banu Harith tribe surrenders and converts to Islam [Quran 3:61] Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet Hamidullah, Majmu'ah (Original letters of Muhammad)
Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Mudhij), December 631 Attack the Banu Nakhla tribe to reduce them to submission 20 killed by Muslims. Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:24:573
Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet
Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Hamdan), 632  To call the people of Hamdan to embrace Islam 300 killed by Muslims Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:641, Sahih al Bukhari, 5:59:642, Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:643 and more Al-Kalbi, The Book of Idols
Demolition of Dhul Khalasa, April 632  Demolish the Temple of Dhul Khalasa worshipped by the Bajila and Khatham tribes 300 killed by Muslims Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:641, Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:642, Sahih al Bukhari, 5:59:643 and more Al-Kalbi, The Book of Idols
Expedition of Usama bin Zayd, May 632  Invade Palestine and attack Moab and Darum Local population "slaughtered" by Muslims, "destroying, burning and taking as many captives as they could" according to Moshe Gil of Cambridge University Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:744, Sahih al-Bukhari, 5:59:745 and moreTabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet Tabari, Volume 10, Conquest of Arabia
Ibn Hisham edited the biography of Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq. Ibn Ishaq's work is lost and is now only known in the recensions of Ibn Hisham and al-Tabari. Therefore, when Ibn Hisham is mentioned as a primary source, so is Ibn Ishaq References .
Note: a full list of the footnotes can be seen on the Wikipedia website listed at the beginning.
Qur’anic Claims that Muhammad
was not Crazy or Demon Possessed A'raf 7:184.....Has it not ever occurred to them (that) their compatriot is no madman.
Yunus 10:2.....The disbelievers say: “This man is clearly a magician”.
Sebe 34:8* & 46.....Hs he invented a lie concerning against Allah, or is there in him a madness (inspired by a demon)?” Say (unto them o Muhammad)... There is no madness in your comrade.
Saffat 37:36.....And they say, “Shall we forsake our gods for a mad poet?”
Sad 38:4.....And they marveled that a warner from among themselves has come unto them, and the disbelievers say: “This is a wizard, a charlatan.”
Zariyat 51:52.....Even so, whenever a messenger came to those that were before them they cried: “Sorcerer!” or “Madman!”
Tur 52:29.....Therefore, give warning (O Muhammad). By the grace of Allah, you are neither a soothsayer nor a madman.
Necm 53:2-4.....Your companion (Muhammad) is neither in error, nor is he deceived, nor does he speak out of caprice, This is no other than an inspired revelation.
Cin 72:1.....Say (O Muhammad): ‘It has been revealed to me that a company of the jinn gave ear, and they said: We have heard a wonderful Qur’an.
Tekvir 81:22 & 25.....No, your companion (the prophet) is not mad. Nor is this (the Qur’an) the utterance of an accursed Satan.
Was Muhammad Demon Possesed? ‘Amr ibn Sharhabil relates that Al Waqidi recorded that Muhammad told his wife Khadija that he feared he was possessed by demons and wondered whether others might consider him possessed.
Dr. Ergun & Emir Caner, Islam Unveiled, p. 85.
At the beginning Muhammad regarded his spiritual encounter with considerable agitation. He “suffered much pain and his face turned dust-coloured. He wondered if he had been demonically possessed, and even contemplated suicide:
I will go to the top of the mountain and throw myself down that I may kill myself and gain rest. So I went forth to do so and then I was midway on the mountain, I heard a voice from heaven saying: “O Muhammad! Thou art an apostle of God and I am Gabriel.” I raised my head towards heaven to see (who was speaking) and lo, Gabriel in the form of a man with feet astride the horison, saying, “O Muhammad! Thou art the apostle of God and I am Gabriel.”
Robert Spencer, The Truth About Islam, p. 42. From Ibn Ishaq p. 106.
Muhammad’s Murders A List of People that Muhammad Ordered to be Killed Murdered by Muhammad:
The Brutal Deaths of Islam’s Earliest Enemies
By David Wood
Consider the following passages about Muhammad and the tolerance of Islam:
The earliest extant biography of Muhammad is the Sirat Rasul Allahby Muhammad Ibn Ishaq, who was born at the beginning of the eighth century AD in Medina. His grandfather, Yasar, became a Muslim shortly after being captured around AD 634. Yasar’s son Ishaq began collecting traditions about Muhammad, and his grandson Muhammad followed in the footsteps of his father Ishaq. By age thirty, Muhammad Ibn (“son of”) Ishaq was recognized as an authority on the traditions about Muhammad. He compiled the most reliable sources into the Sirat Rasul Allah, providing us with an early, largely accurate, and authoritative source on the life of Muhammad.
Most of the following accounts are taken from Ibn Ishaq’s work. As the title of this essay implies, I have focused here on cases displaying Muhammad’s cruelty, for these stories are almost always omitted in modern Muslim accounts of the life of Muhammad. However, it must not be forgotten that the Sirat Rasul Allah contains many instances of Muhammad’s kindness and mercy; thus, the following excerpts should be considered alongside the more favorable traditions.
The Case of Uqba bin Abu Mu’ayt
Of all the people killed by Muhammad, Uqba was among those most worthy of punishment. He ridiculed and tormented Muhammad while the latter was still in Mecca. Indeed, Uqba was so disrespectful that he once spit in Muhammad’s face, and he later fought the Muslims at Badr. He is only listed here because of the particularly callous response that Muhammad gave him at his execution: “When the apostle ordered him to be killed Uqba said, ‘But who will look after my children, O Muhammad?’ ‘Hell,’ he said.”
Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah (The Life of Muhammad), A. Guillaume, tr. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 164.
 Ibid., p. 308.
The Case of Ka’b bin al-Ashraf
When Ka’b heard of all the men who had been killed by Muslims at the Battle of Badr, he wept for the departed and composed a poem in memory of their good works. The Muslims responded with poetry of their own. One Muslim woman answered:
Would that those weltering in their blood
Could be seen by those who live between Mecca’s mountains!
They would know for certain and would see
How they were dragged along by hair and beard.
After this, Ka’b wrote poetry against the Muslim women, and Muhammad subsequently called for his assassination:
The apostle said . . . “Who will rid me of Ibnu’l-Ashraf [Ka’b]?” Muhammad bin Maslama . . . said, “I will deal with him for you, O apostle of God, I will kill him.” [Muhammad] said, “Do so if you can.” . . . The apostle said, “All that is incumbent upon you is that you should try.” [The assassin] said, “O apostle of God, we shall have to tell lies.” He answered, “Say what you like, for you are free in this matter.”
Muhammad bin Maslama, having received from Muhammad permission to lie, proceeded with his plan to murder Ka’b. The Muslims sent Silkan, a lover of poetry, to befriend Ka’b. Silkan and Ka’b spent some time reciting verses to one another, until the former asked a favor of his new friend. Silkan said that he and his companions wanted to buy some food from Ka’b and that he would put down a number of weapons as a pledge until payment could be made. He did this so that Ka’b “would not take alarm at the sight of weapons when they brought them.” The Muslims came later with their weapons and invited Ka’b to join them for a walk, and he gladly joined them.
[A]fter a time Abu Na’ila ran his hand through [Ka’b’s] hair. Then he smelt his hand, and said, “I have never smelt a scent finer than this.” They walked on farther and he did the same so that Ka’b suspected no evil. Then after a space he did it for the third time, and cried, “Smite the enemy of God!” So they smote him, and their swords clashed over him with no effect. Muhammad bin Maslama said, “I remembered my dagger when I saw that our swords were useless, and I seized it. Meanwhile the enemy of God had made such a noise that every fort around us was showing a light. I thrust it into the lower part of his body, then I bore down upon it until I reached his genitals, and the enemy of God fell to the ground.”
The assassination of Ka’b had the desired effect: “Our attack upon God’s enemy cast terror among the Jews, and there was no Jew in Medina who did not fear for his life.”
 Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah (The Life of Muhammad), A. Guillaume, tr. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 366.
 Ibid., p. 367. This account is corroborated in Sahih Al-Bukhari, Dr. Muhammad Matraji, tr. (New Delhi: Islamic Book Service, 2002), Number 3032.
 Ibid., p. 368.
 Ibid., p. 368.
In a sound hadith the Prophet commanded that Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf be killed. He asked,
Who will deal with Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf? He has harmed Allah and His Messenger."
He sent someone to assassinate him without calling him to Islam, in distinction to other
idol-worshippers. The cause of that lay in his causing harm to the Prophet. That indicates
that the Prophet had him killed for something other than idol-worship. It was for causing
harm. Abu Rafi,' who used to harm the Messenger of Allah and work against him, was
Ash-Shifa by Qadi 'Iyad ibn Musa al-Yahsubi , Muhammad Messenger of Allah.
Kitab Ash-shifa bi ta'rif huquq al-Mustafa, (Healing by the recognition of the Rights
of the Chosen one), of Qadi 'Iyad (d. 544H / 1149CE) is perhaps the most frequently
used and commented upon handbook in which the Prophet's life, his qualities and his
miracles are described in every detail.
The next to die by assassination was another poet,