State Integrated Board of Studies – Botany pg

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CHENNAI – 600 005.

State Integrated Board of Studies

Under Graduation - Three Year Course


  1. Mandatory Areas

1. Microbiology

2. Algae

3. Fungi

4. Lichens

5. Bryophytes

6. Pteridophytes

7. Gymnosperms

8. Palaeobotany

9. Plant anatomy

10. Embryology

11. Morphology of angiosperms

12. Taxonomy of angiosperms

13. Economic botany

14. Cell biology

15. Genetics

16. Molecular biology

17. Genetic engineering

18. Bioinformatics

19. Plant biotechnology

20. Plant breeding

21. Plant pathology

22. Plant ecology

23. Environmental biotechnology

24. Phytogeography

25. Techniques in biology

26. Plant physiology and biochemistry

27. Biostatistics

28. Evolution
B. Suggested Optional Areas
1. Horticulture

2. Herbal Botany

3. Ethnobotany

4. Seaweed Technology

5. Agri Based Microenterprises

6. Mushroom Culture Technology

7. Phytochemistry

8. Organic Farming

9. Biodiversity and Climate Change

10. Environmental Impact Assessment

A. Mandatory Areas
The scope of microbiology - history of microbiology – classification of microorganisms- Whittaker’s Five Kingdom concept

Viruses: structure of TMV and bacteriophage; bacteriophage replication-lytic and lysogenic cycles

Bacteria: outline of bacterial classification-Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology

Ultrastructure-Gram positive and gram negative bacteria, flagellation, nutrition, cell division, reproduction and genetic recombination-Transformation, transduction and conjugation.

Microbial applications in Industries: diary, alcohol, acid and fermented foods Sewage treatment.

Microbiology of water- Bacteriological evidence of pollution, purification of water-sedimentation, filtration, disinfection-Sewage treatment-primary, secondary and tertiary

Microbiology of soil-soil profile, rhizosphere, rhizoplane-plant-icrobes interaction – Rhizobium

Diary Microbiology-composition of milk, dairy products-cheese and yogurt source and processing of the following fermented foods: Saurkraut and Kimchi tempeh, soysauce, sago and manihot

Microbiology of air, indoor and outdoor environments-control of microbes in air by Heat, moist heat, dry heat, chemicals, UV, filtration, Laminar air flow chamber.


1. Preparation of culture media for bacteria, fungi-sterilization procedures

2. Isolation of rhizosphere, rhizoplane, phylloplane microorganisms.

3. Isolation of pure culture from soil-serial dilution.

4. Gram staining procedure


Classification (Silva, 1982), criteria for classification, algal distribution, thallus organization (unicellular-Chlamydomonas, Diatoms, colonial-Volvox, filamentous-Anabaena, Oedogonium, siphonous-Caulerpa, parenchymatous-Ulva, Sargassum, Gracilaria), reproduction-Vegetative, asexual, sexual reproduction and life cycles (haplontic-Chlamydomonas, Oedogonium and Chara, diplontic-Diatoms and Sargassum, diplohaplontic-Ulva and diplobiontic-Gracilaria). (Examples may be changed according to the availability of the specimens)

Economic importance of algae: Algae as food and feed; Agar-agar, Alginic acid and Carrageenan; Diatomite,


  1. Micro-preparation of the types prescribed in the syllabus

  2. Identifying the micro slides relevant to the syllabus

  3. Identifying algae

3. Fungi

Classification (Alexopoulous), criteria for classification, Characteristic features, structure, reproduction and life-history of classes, each with one suitable example: Zygomycotina (Mucor), Ascomycotina (Peziza), Basidiomycotina (Agaricus) and Deuteromycotina (Cercospora). (Examples may be changed according to the availability of the specimens)

Economic importance of Fungi: Medicine, food, biopesticides, biofertilizers and industrial uses such as alcohol, acids and enzymes


  1. Micro-preparation of the types prescribed in the syllabus

  2. Identifying the micro slides relevant to the syllabus

4. Lichen

Structure, types, distribution, reproduction and ecological significance of lichens with special reference to Usnea- economic importance of lichens


  1. Micro-preparation of Usnea to study vegetative and reproductive structures

  2. Identifying the micro slides relevant to the syllabus

5. Bryophytes

Classification of Bryophyta (Watson)-structure and reproduction of the following classes each with a suitable example: Hepaticopsida (Marchantia); Anthocerotopsida (Anthoceros) and Bryopsida (Funaria). (Examples may be changed according to the availability of the specimens).Position of Bryophytes in the evolution of higher plants.


  1. Micro-preparation of the types prescribed in the syllabus

  2. Identifying the micro slides relevant to the syllabus

6. Pteridophytes
Classification of Pteridophyta (Reimer). General characteristics, structure and reproduction of the taxa belonging to each of the following classes: Psilotopsida (Psilotum), Lycopsida (Lycopodium/Selaginella), Sphenopsida (Equisetum), Pteropsida (Adiantum). (Examples may be changed according to the availability of the specimens).
Stelar evolution in Pteridophytes.


  1. Micro-preparation of the types prescribed in the syllabus

  2. Identifying the micro slides relevant to the syllabus

Classification of Gymnosperms (Smith). General characteristics, structure and reproduction of the taxa belonging to each of the following orders: Cycadales (Cycas), Coniferales (Pinus).
Economic importance: Oil, resin, timber, etc.

  1. Micro-preparation of the types prescribed in the syllabus

  2. Identifying the micro slides relevant to the syllabus

8. Palaeobotany
Introduction to fossils and fossilization processes such as compression, casts, molds, petrification, impressions and coal balls. Geological time scale. Study of the following fossils: Lepidodendron, Calamites and Williamsonia sewardiana.

  1. Observing and identifying the fossil slides included in the syllabus

9. Plant Anatomy
Structure and function of simple & complex tissues. Meristematic tissues: definition, structure, function & classification. apical organization and theories: apical cell theory, Histogen theory & Tunica – Corpus theory. Root apex: Histogen theory & Korper-Kappe theory. Secretary tissues: external glands & nectarines and lacticifers.
Tissue systems: Primary structure of root, stem & leaves. Epidermal tissue system: epidermis, cuticle, trichome, stomata, bulliform cells, cork and silica cells. Ground tissue systems: cortex, endodermis, pericycle, pith & pith rays. Vascular tissue systems: different types of vascular bundles and their arrangement in root and stem. Nodal anatomy: leaf trace, leaf gap, branch trace and branch gap.
Stem thickening in monocots and dicots, Dicot root thickening. Anomalous secondary growth of Stem-Bougainvillea, Bignonia, Nyctanthes and Dracaena. Periderm structure and development: Phellem, Phellogen, Phelloderm, Rytidome and lenticels.

  1. Cell types and tissues

  2. Non-living inclusions : starch grains, cystoliths, raphides and aleurone grains

  3. Primary structure of stem, root and leaf-dicot and monocot

  4. Stomatal types-anomocytic, anisocytic, paracytic, diacytic and grass type

  5. Secondary structure of dicot stem and root

  6. Anomalous secondary structure- Bougainvillea, Bignonia, Nyctanthesand Dracaena

  7. Identification of wood based on either RLS or TLS

10. Embryology
Structure and development of anther-microsporogenesis, development of male gametophyte, dehiscence of anther, structure of pollen and its germination, and viability.
Structure and development of ovule –megasporogenesis, development of an embryosac –monosporic (Polygonum type), bisporic (Allium type) and tetrasporic (Peperomia type). Structure of mature embryo sac, double fertilization, apomixes. Development of an endosperm and embryo in dicots and monocots, polyembryony, structure of fruit and seed.

  1. Identificatin of C.S. of anther, embryosac, monocot and dicot embryo

  2. Identification of placentation types

  3. Identification of various stages of dicot embryo

11. Morphology of Angiosperms
Leaf:Phyllotaxy, simple, compound and modifications; inflorescence-types; Flower: description of floral parts; Fruits-types.

12. Taxonomy of Angiosperms
Introduction to principles of Taxonomy and their importance. Classification: Natural-Bentham and Hooker; Artificial-Linnaeus; Modern-Cronquist (outline of cdlassification) Binomial nomenclature, IUCN, Author citation, Key preparation, Taxonomic hierarchy-major and minor categories. A brief outline of modern methods of plant identification: Chemotaxonomy, numerical taxonomy, serotaxonomy and molecular techniques. Preparation, maintenance and significance of Herbarium. A brief note on important Indian and world herbaria.
Detailed study of the characters and plants of economic importance of the following families.
Polypetalae: Any 5 families

Gamopetalae: Any 5 families

Monochlamydae: Any 4 families

Monocot: Any 3 families


  1. Morphological identification of plant parts and their modifications.

  2. Dissection of floral parts of plants belonging to the families

  3. Field trips (minimum of 5 days) to places within or outside the state under the guidance of teachers to study plants in their natural habitats.

  4. Preparation and submission of 10 herbarium sheets

13. Economic Botany
Study of binomial, family and useful parts for any four plants for each of the following plant products: fibre, resin, timber, cosmetics, cereals, pulses, bevarages and oil.

  1. Identify and comment on use of plant, plant parts and plant products

14. Cell Biology
Plant cell structure and function. Ultra structure of Eukaryotic cell. Cell wall- Structure, chemistry and functions. Plasma membrane - Structure, Chemistry and function.
Cell Organelles: Ultra Structure and origin of the following: Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgicomplex, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Ribosomes and Microbodies.
Structure and Functions of Nucleus, Nuclear Envelope, Nucleoplasm, Nucleolus, Chromosome – Euchromatin & heterochromatin, Giant chromosomes-Polytene and Lambrush chromosomes.
Nucleic acids. Molecular structure and functions of DNA and RNA. Cell divisions - Mitosis and Meiosis. Cell cycle.
Cell signalling- Cell surface receptors-MAP Kinase pathway

  1. Study of structure of plant cell organelles using electron photo micrographs from standard books.

  2. Cytochemical test for starch, sugar and protein

  3. Study of mitosis and meiosis by squash and smear techniques.

15. Genetics
Monohybrid and Dihybrid cross, test cross, back cross, Mendel’s Laws. Deviation from Mendelian ratio – incomplete dominance, lethal factor, complementary factor, supplementary factor, duplicate and inhibitory. Polygenic inheritance – Inheritance of Wheat Kernel and ear length in Maize.
Linkage – Crossing over and recombination. Gene Mapping. Chromosome theory of inheritance. Sex determination in plants, Sex Linked Inheritance, Sex linked diseases, Haemophilia, Colour blindness.
Extra nuclear inheritance - male sterility in corn, Population genetics, Hardy-Weinberg’s principles, factors affecting.
1. Simple problems on dihybrid ratio and interaction of factors.

2. Construction of chromosome maps using three - point test cross data.

16. Molecular Biology
Nucleic acid - structure and properties (physical, chemical, spectroscopic and thermal). DNA- types (A, B, C &Z), Watson and Crick model of DNA, viral DNA, bacterial DNA, Mitochondrial and Chloroplast DNA. Dissociation and reassociation kinetics of DNA. DNA as genetic material, DNA synthesis and replication (prokaryote and eukaryote) – Enzymes involved, origin of replication, priming, DNA polymerases. Methylation of DNA. Damage and Repair of DNA.
RNA-synthesis - types. RNA polymerases-role. Transcription-(Prokaryote, Eukaryotes), Initiation, elongation, termination, post transcriptional changes in RNA. Genetic code- Translation-ribosome assembly, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors, elongation and termination, Wobble hypothesis, translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, post- translational modification of proteins.
General principles of Gene Regulation, Gene Regulation in prokaryotes, Operon concept, lac Operon, Positive and negative control, Catabolite Repression, Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes, Transcriptional, Translational and Post translational control in eukaryotic cells. Gene silencing.


  1. Spotters pertaining to the syllabus from standard books

17. Genetic Engineering
Introduction to Genetic Engineering; techniques- Restriction endonucleases- Ligation, Adapters and Linkers, Cloning Vectors-Plasmids,Cosmids, Phagemids, YAC and BAC, cDNA Libraries, Hybridisation- Southern, Northerenaans Western Blotting.
Genetic Engineering in plants, Target cells for transformation, Gene transfer technique using Agrobacterium, physical delivery methods : PEG sstimulated, Microinjection and Macro infection, Micro projectile (Particle Gun), Electroporation, Silicon Carbide. GM plants- BtBrinjal, Bt Cotton, Golden rice- Bioethical issues.


  1. Demonstration- Gel electrophoresis for DNA and proteins and

visualization by staining with proper dye.

  1. Isolation of Plasmid DNA from bacteria & genomic DNA from plant tissue.

  1. Preparation of culture medium (LB) for E.coli (both solid and liquid) and raise culture of E.coli.

  1. Spotters pertaining to the syllabus.

18. Bioinformatics
Introduction to bioinformatics: Biological Database – Protein and DNA sequence data base, Structure database, literature database, (Pubmed, Medline). Sequence Alignment, Database similarity searching; FASTA; BLAST, Proteomics – protein structure prediction (primary, secondary & tertiary), Human Genome Project.

19. Plant Biotechnology
Scope and history of plant tissue culture, culture, technique – tissue culture media –MS media preparation, sterilization, explant preparation and inoculation callus induction, organogenesis (embryogenesis) Suspension culture, somatic embryogenesis, Artificial seed, Anther and ovule culture haploids in crop improvement, Protoplast isolation, purification, fusion, somatic hybridization. Immobilisation techniques.

Bio fertilizers-       Mass cultivation and uses of

Bacterial biofertilizers  – Rhizobium, Azospirillum

Algal biofertilizers – Anabaena, Nostoc

Fungal biofertilizser – Mycorrhiza (VAM)

Plant Pesticides – Bio Insecticides.

Fermentation Technology-Production of Ethanol, Production of Penicillin

Vaccines – Types, Source, production and uses.

Biofuel – Hydrogen Production, and the conversion of light energy Importance of biological production of hydrogen, photoproduction of hydrogen. Cell free hydrogen production, Hydrogen production from Marine organisms, Microbial production of hydrogen.
Single cell protein (SCP) and their Nutritional value-Micro organisms used as SCP-Spirulina, Chlorella, Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) – Mass cultivation of Spirulina, Chlorella, and Yeast.
Biogas production – Methanogenesis. Waste treatment – Aerobic and anaerobic. Reusage of Sewage.

  1. Demonstration of Meristem anther and embryo culture using MS Medium

  2. Protoplast isolation (Demonstration)

  3. Immobilisation techniques.

  4. Spotters pertaining to the syllabus.

20. Plant Breeding
Plant Breeding: Objectives, Plant introduction, selection, hybridization techniques, HybridVigor, heterosis, Interspecific and intergeneric. Mutation -Polyploidy and its applications in plantbreeding. Breeding for crop improvement for Paddy, Groundnut and Sugarcane.

  1. Hybridization techniques - Emasculation, Bagging (demonstration only)

21. Plant Pathology
Plant Pathology -History, Detailed studies of the nature of plant disease and its causal agents (fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, environmental/chemical agents), Common diseases: symptoms, disease cycle and control measures. Rots- Late blight disease of potato, Damping off disease of seedlings, Downy mildew –peas, Wilt of cotton, Leaf spot disease of ground nut, Citrus canker, Mosaic disease of tomato, Bunchy top disease of banana and rust of wheat.
Host pathogen interactions. Mechanisms of pathogenesis- recognition phenomenon, penetration, invasion, primary disease determinant, Defence mechanism in plants - morphological, phytoalexins.

  1. Morphological and anatomical studies of all plant diseases included in the theory syllabus

  2. Ground nut disease, Alternaria alternata-chemical, biological control with Trichoderma sp.

  3. Neem extract against known pathogen

22. Plant Ecology
Biotic and abiotic factors and their influence on vegetation – a brief account of microbes, plants, animals, soil, wind, light, temperature, rainfall and fire. Biogeochemical cycles(Nitrogen, Carbon)
Ecosystem – concept, processes and components. Food chain, food web, energy flow, pyramids. Nutrient cycling. Types of ecosystems - coastal and grassland.
Autecology and Synecology – Vegetation – Units of Vegetation – Formation, Association, Consociation, Society – development of vegetation. Migration – ecesis, colonization, Methods of study of vegetation (Quadrat and transect) Plant succession –Hydrosere and Xerosere. Ecological classification of plants: Morphological and anatomical features of plants and their correlation to the habitat factors.

  1. Study of morphological and structural adaptations of locally available hydrophytes, xerophytes, mesophytes and epiphytes and correlate to their particular habitats.

Hydrophyte: Nymphaea, Hydrilla

Xerophytes: Nerium, Casuarina

Mesophytes: Tridax, Vernonia

Epiphytes: Vanda

  1. Study of following microclimatic variables in different habitats: soil and air temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity, rainfall and light intensity.

  1. Permeability (percolation; total capacity as well as rate of movement) of different soil samples.

  1. Saturation capacity and field capacity of different soil samples and rapid test for texture of soils.

  1. Density and porosity and rate of infiltration of water in undisturbed soils.

  1. Soil organic matter in different soil samples by titration method.

  1. Determination of minimal area of quadrat size of species area curve method.

  1. Quantitative analysis of herbaceous vegetation for frequency; density and abundance.

  1. Determination of dissolved oxygen of water samples from polluted and unpolluted sources.

  1. Morphological adaptations of hydrophytes and xerophytes.

23. Environmental Biotechnology
Biodegradation of xenobiotics using microbesBiomonitoring - Biodegradation of Xenobiotics using microbe, Types of Bioremediation: in situ and ex situ, Phytoremediation, Biosensors and Bioindicators, Bioleaching.
24. Phytogeography
Phytogeography – principles – vegetation types of India. Tropical rain forest, Sholas andDeciduous Forest – Sand dunes and Mangrove vegetation and Scrubjungle, Phytogeographical regions of India.

  1. Map of phytogeographical regions of India

25. Techniques in Biology
Microscopy: Compound  Microscope , parts of compound microscope, bright field microscopy, dark field microscopy. Phase contrast microscopy, fluorescent microscopy, Electron  microscopy- TEM, SEM, Tissue preparation in light and electron Microscopy,Camera Lucida  - Micrometry-Microtomy- fixatives, dehydration,infiltration, preparation of paraffin block, Microtomes- types,Staining – single and double.
Colorimetry and Photometry- Beer- Lamberts Law; colorimeter and               spectrophotometer. Electromagnetic Spectum. UV spectroscopy, NMR, Mass Spectroscopy.  pH Meter.   
Chromatography : Principles and applications, mobile and stationary phases, Rf value, Paper chromatography, Gel filteration chromatography, TLC, HPLC, GLC and Ion-Exchange chromatography.  
Electrophoresis: Principles and Applications. Separation of macromolecules by Agarose gel Electrophoresis, Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, SDS - PAGE, Pulse Iso Electric focussing, Two dimensional gel Electrophoresis.
Centrifugation: Principles and Applications,  Types of centrifuges, parts of centrifuges. Velocity gradient centrifugation, Isopycnic centrifugation, Differential      centrifugation.

  1. Demonstration of centrifugation, UV-Spectrophotmeter,

  2. Demonstration of GLC, HPLC and GCMS

  3. Demonstration of Microtomic techniques.

  4. Studies on pH titration curves of amino acids/ acetic acid and determination of pKa values and Handerson-Hasselbach equation.

5. TLC using amino acids from purified samples and biological materials.
Каталог: pdf -> SIBOS%20stem%20subjecs
pdf -> XƏZƏR 2014, №2 bu sayda güMÜŞ DÖVRÜN ŞAİRLƏRİ
pdf -> Mühazirə otağı/Cədvəl 115 (old) / Cümə axşamı 11: 50-13: 20, 13: 40-15: 10 Məsləhət saatları
pdf -> F. H. Zeynalov
pdf -> HƏQİQƏTİ baki – 2011 azərbaycan miLLİ elmlər akademiyasi məHƏMMƏd füzuli adına Əlyazmalar institutu naiLƏ SƏMƏdova insan, zaman və HƏyat
pdf -> Xiii respublika elmi konfransının mater I allari (Bakı, 24 may, 2013) Bakı – “Elm və təhsil” – 2013 azərbaycan miLLİ elmlər akademiyasi
pdf -> Mühazirə otağı/Cədvəl B. e. 10: 10-11: 40, Ç. a. 10: 10-11: 40, C. a 10: 10-11: 40 Məsləhət saatları
pdf -> AZƏrbaycan miLLİ elmlər akademiyasi folklor institutu səDNİk paşa pirsultanli
pdf -> AZƏrbaycan respublikasi təHSİl naziRLİYİ GƏNCƏ DÖVLƏt universiteti
SIBOS%20stem%20subjecs -> State Integrated Board of Studies – Geography pg

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