Annexure-i justification of Building funds

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Justification of Building funds:

The roof of the Department has undergone severe wear and tear and needs urgent renovation.The space requirements have increased greatly because of the expansion of the Department in terms of number of courses, number of undergraduate and post graduate students and Research students in various research fields. The University has begun the process of approving plans for the new construction. However funding needs to be arranged from several sources in view of resource crunch. Therefore the UGC-CAS may consider making aid for this purpose to act as seed money for the new building.


Sanctioned strength

M.Sc I




B.Sc I






B.Sc Subsidiary

Chemistry Geology Maths

80 B.Sc I

80 B.Sc II

BioMedical Sciences


240 x 1/6 = 40



Ph.D. students


Nano Science


All theory Papers held in the department

Medical Physics and Nuclear Medicine


Sanctioned total Students strength

483+40+14+30+15+10 = 592


Class rooms

M.Sc I

1 section

3 bay class room


1 section

3 bay class room

B.Sc I

3 bay class room


3 bay class room


3 bay class room

M.Phil/Pre Ph.D.

2 bay class room


17 bays

Teaching Laboratory

M.Sc I

6 bays Physics


6 bays Physics + 3 bays Electronics

B.Sc I

6 bays Physics

4 bays Electronics (I,II,III)



6 bays Physics

M.Phil Lab./ Advanced instrumentation lab.

3 bays

Computer teaching laboratories

6 bays


40 bays

Teachers Rooms and Research Labs.

Office space for Faculty

10 bays

Lab. Space for theory and Expt. Including Ph. D. students sitting space) 20 bays


10 office bays + 20 Lab. Bays = 30 bays

Teaching Class rooms

17 bays

Teaching Labs

40 Bays

Faculty Office + Research Lab

30 Bays


87 Bays

Summary - Total Building space requirements after the adjustments in the present existing space (spread over several floors) about 75 bays x 200 sq. Ft. = 15000 Sq. Ft.


Justification : At present maximal allowed student strength is

207+276 + 40 + 15+10 + 120= 668

BSc((46(Phys.) +23(Phys. Elec)) x 3=207

MSc((46(Phys.) +23(Phys. Elec)) x 2=138

MSc seats for passouts of BSc: 69 x 2= 138

Subsidiary students : 240 counted as 1/6 : 40

MPhil : 15

Post- MSc Accelerator Phys : 10

PhD Scholars 120

Actual strength : 60 + 63 + 58 +98 +88 + 40 + 120 =527 This is likely to rise to the maximum allowed due to saturation by BSc Physics

Phys. and Electronics pass-outs .

Sanctioned teachers (As per UGC norms of 1:14 for UG and 1:12 for PG )

SHOULD BE : 461/12 + 207/14= 53 TEACHERS ONLY 44 sanctioned.

Teachers as per present strength SHOULD be : 306/12 + 221/14= 41


2.6 Equipment

Name of the Department

Name of Major Equipments proposed to be acquired during XII Plan (costing above Rs. 1 lakh)

Cost (Rs. in lakhs)


X-ray generator

Rs. 15 lacs

X-ray monochromator and XYZ stages D.Mehta

Rs. 12 lacs

Mini X-ray tube exciter and Peltier-cooled detector

Rs. 12 lacs

Low-background gamma-ray spectrometer with anti-Compton shield with data acquisition system

Rs. 40 lacs

NE 213 Liquid Scintilator materials, Photo Multoplier tube and Gold Plated Tngsten wire, Wire Stretcher unit and P-10 Gas BRB

Rs. 10 lakh

Work stations (2 nos.)

Rs. 5 lacs

Isotopically pure target materials Samarjit

Rs. 20 lacs

Photoluminescence set up with variable temperature

Rs 50 lacs

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) NG

Rs 30 lacs

Vibration free Table SKT

Rs. 15 Lacs

Micronizing Mill and accessories Shahi

Rs. 5 Lacs

Microbalance Shahi

Rs. 7 Lacs

Advanced mechanical and Electronics workshop facilities - General

Rs. 100 Lacs

Electronics modules for Coincidence set up

Rs. 40 lacs

Maintenance of Cyclotron Ashok / BRB

Rs. 30 Lacs

He-Cd laser at 441.6 nm

Rs 10 lacs

e-books of Physics for students and faculty

Infrastructure (furniture, almirah etc)

For library

Rs 20 lacs

Rs. 2 lacs

Multimedia Projectors – 4

Rs. 4. lakh

Laptops – 4

Rs. 4 Lakh


Rs. 431 Lakh



The Physics Department at Panjab University, Chandigarh, is one of the most prominent Physics Department among Universities in India. As detailed below, since it’s re-establishment in Chandigarh in the 1950’s, it has launched nationally   pre-eminent and Internationally significant Research programs in the chosen areas of High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics and Condensed Matter Physics. These programs are in addition to the Undergraduate and Post-Graduate (Honours School) programs in Physics, and Physics and Electronics which have augmented the maximum sanctioned strength of  undergraduate students from  some 90 students in the mid-1990’s to over 200 students today, and that of MSc students from 100 to over 270 today. On top of these, there are 120 PhD Research Scholars, who also undertake the pre Ph.D. course. There is also an M. Phil course with 15 students. An underlying service commitment to teach subsidiary courses in Physics to about 200 Undergraduate students from other Science Departments takes the numbers of students using the Physics Department facilities each day to some 800 students and research scholars.

The proposed University Institute of Physics (UIP) will have thrust on Theoretical and Experimental Physics in the following areas: High Energy physics, Nuclear Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, atomic and Molecular physics, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Geosciences. The institute will be divided into Academic groups for Theoretical and Experimental Physics and be equipped with Central advanced Computing facility, Library, Mechanical and Electronics Workshop, Teaching and Research Laboratories which will be enhancements of the significant investments in and capabilities of the current facilities of the Department of Physics, Panjab University. Moreover since the Department of Physics is already a significant present or proposed locus of National investment in advanced research facilities the proposed Institute will serve as a framework to ensure the survival and continuity of the large research programs in High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics and Condensed matter Physics running in the Department for the last half century and ever increasing levels. To make the teaching programmes more research-oriented, Curriculum based on assignments and Tutorials and advanced class rooms will be added. An efficient administration in the institute will endeavour to facilitate scientific research by providing support at all levels ranging from general administrative matters to infrastructure support. Further to enhance the research standards the institute will facilitate (i) Seed Research Funds for new faculty and annual funds for each of the regular faculty members, (iii) Institute Research Fellowships and Post doctoral fellowships, (iv) Summer Interns, (v) Guest Faculty/Invited Lecture for short periods. To elevate the research programme, Prestigious Chair in the institute will be offered to a distinguished scientist.

The ongoing well-established and strong academic and research programs are running even though the Faculty strength has reduced to 26 serving faculty against 45 sanctioned posts. A few more teachers are going to retire in the next year. In view of these facts and the voluminous and sustained achievements of the Department it is time to serious consider enhanced investment and also a more elaborate administrative structure which will allow the somewhat conflicting demands of large teaching and research programs to be harmonized and nourished.  The appropriate format for the preservation and elaboration of these strong programs would be the establishment of an Institute of Physics. The proposed Institute of Physics would be funded, empowered and autonomous enough to ensure that the strong research programs established can be sustained in spite of the constraints of the University system.

At the same time due to shared or exchanged faculty with the Department as well as the additional space and personnel, it could provide for shared teaching and research supervision responsibilities. Institute would both help in keeping the Physics teaching programs running and serve as a pole of inspiration dedicated to pursuing ever increasing levels of research achievement by breaking out of the `marking time’ syndrome that comes to limit research by committed and competent University faculty due to the uniform requirements imposed on their time by the University `one size fits all’ system irrespective of their actual interest, commitment and level of achievement of research.

The alliance of the Institute and Department would make possible an arrangement where by Research-oriented teaching programmes will be promoted and simultaneously significant research achievement will be demonstrated. A balance between the teaching and research performance would be possible with the help of sufficient faculty consisting of the young and the accomplished scientists with proven academic and research credentials in Theoretical and/or Experimental Physics.

Another significant role of the new Institute would be to provide a flexible and autonomous administrative framework for major experimental investments such as the already proposed but not yet funded Ion beam Accelerator, Detector Fabrication Laboratory and Nanoscience research facilities. These proposed facilities as well as enhanced theory research groups in these active areas together with a fresh initiative in Astrophysics and Astro-particle Physics already would be able to enjoy and utilize the developed competencies and research strengths as well as ``brand name‘’ recognition of the well established Physics department without being unduly restricted by lack of autonomy vis a vis the University structure. It may be noted that this proposal is very much in tune with the call of the Hon’ble Prime Minister to double investment in Science and Technology and the acute difficulty in doing soon the basis of green field facilities while ignoring the languishing and increasingly moribund Universities where  the bulk of the nations students and faculty are relegated.

Below we will cover the main strengths and achievements of the established research groups in the Department and then give a sketch of the proposed structures and investment during the XII Plan period to establish an Institute of Physics allied to the Panjab University Department of Physics but with an autonomous structure within the overall University structure.

The Department has already gone through various stages of recognition since its inception after the Panjab University re-chartered on Oct 1, 1947 after partition. The Physics department moved to present Panjab University campus in 1958. The department had humble beginning in research in Experimental High Energy Particle Physics with the establishment of Nuclear Emulsion Lab. by Prof. B.M. Anand. The Nuclear Physics group got a boost with establishment of Cyclotron Facility by Prof. H.S. Hans. Since then the department has gone through various prestigious funding stages of UGC/DST/DAE for Research and Teaching as mentioned below:

  1. UGC COSIP (College Science Improvement Programme) and ULP (University Leadership Programme) 1977-1983

  2. SAP (Special Assistance Programme)1980-1988

  3. COSIST (Committee on Strengthening of Infrastructure in Science and Technology)1984-1991

  4. Center of Advanced Study (CAS) status since1988

  5. Unique feature – All the three major thrust areas of Physics

    • High Energy Particle Physics (Expt. & Theory)

    • Solid State Physics (Expt. & Theory)

    • Nuclear Physics (Expt. & Theory)

  6. Funded for IV th phase of Centre for Advanced Studies (CAS) in 2009 after successful completion of previous three phases since 1988.

  7. Funding under DST-FIST-I (Funds for Improvement of Science & Technology) Programme (2003-2008) and DST-FIST-II (2009-2013).

As mentioned above, the department has already achieved the standing of a National Institute having the very active research programmes. With proposed status of University Institute of Physics would take this department to new heights in research and teaching program as well as guarantee the survival of the research programs in which very large investments of funds and human resources have already been made and which are in danger of collapsing if their staffing is left to the untargeted replenishment available from the regular University recruitment process. The main strengths and achievements of the established research groups in the Department are given below:
(A) Experimental High Energy Physics Group (Experimental Particle Physics & Heavy Ion Group):

  1. Experimental Particle Physics Group

Since 1954, the Physics Department, Panjab University group has been actively engaged in the experimental High Energy Physics Research initially using Nuclear Emulsion Technique. Using this technique several Cosmic rays as well as particle accelerator based experiments were performed. Later on in 1975, after TIFR, Panjab University was th only University to initiate setting up Bubble Chamber Technique facility and using know how from TIFR and Michigan State University, Bubble Chamber projection Systems were developed at CSIO, Chandigarh. Using this facility group participated with CERN on several Bubble Chamber experiments using beam at 780 MeV, 40 GeV K-Beam and 360GeV Proton Beam. Later of its own with having Collaboration of TIFR, Panjab University used Bubble Chamber Facility to participate in Tevatron Neutrino experiment with Fermilab(USA). During late 80’ Group started participating in Frontline International Experiments using Electronics detectors like; Dzero(Tevatron,USA), Belle(KEK, Japan), WA98(CERN), ZEUS (HERA),CMS(CERN),ALICE(CERN),STAR(USA). These Experiments led to the following discoveries:

  • Discovery of TOP Quark (1995)

  • Discovery of CP-violation in B-meson System(2001,2003)

  • Discovery of new particle state with Belle

  • Observation of Quark-Gluon Plasma

Following are the details of contribution and participation in various International Collaborative Experiments
Belle Experiment at KEK (Japan)

One of the most mysterious phenomena in the particle physics that remains unresolved is the CP-violation which is considered to be responsible for the baryon-antibaryon asymmetry in our section of universe. Keeping in view the importance of CP-violation effect, two dedicated e^{+}e^{-} collider machines (B-factories) have been pursued in the world - one at KEK(Japan) and another at SLAC(USA). The KEK accelerator and Belle detector have been made operational and started data taking in July 1999. The observation of a CP-violating asymmetry in B-meson decays is an important milestone in high energy particle physics by these B-factories. From Panjab University along with students, we have been participating in this Prestigious International Experiment.

The Panjab University would continue to participate in Data taking, Physics analysis of the Belle Experiment at KEK B-factory (Japan). The Belle collaboration has already made truly historic achievements in the area of Quark Flavour physics and has become a world leader in this branch of high-energy physics. The experiment would continue to run during next several years and also intend to upgrade the World's Highest Luminosity KEKB accelerator to new Accelerator Super-KEKB and the Belle Detector. During next 10-years group would participate in the Physics analysis with higher statistics which would lead to more and more discovery of new particles and new phenomenon in the field of B-physics including Direct CP-Violation. To summarize we intend to Participate in Data taking with Belle Detector at KEKB factory Physics Analysis for the observation new B-decay modes Search for Direct CP-Violation in new rare B-decays Detector development and R&D for Silicon Detector for Super-KEKB detector

CMS Experiment at LHC (CERN)

Group is participating in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Switzerland. The LHC is going to be the Highest Energy Accelerator for next 10-15 years and would provide unique opportunity Search of new particles and new physics at TeV scale. The CMS experiment is one of two large general purpose particle physics detectors capable of studying many aspects of proton-proton collisions at Centre of Mass Energy 14TeV. It contains sub-detectors which are designed to measure the energy and momentum of photons, electrons, muons and other particles produced in the collision. At Panjab University along with TIFR, we took complete responsibility of designing, fabrication, testing and installation of one of the sub-detector called Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO) into the CMS detector.

For this purpose, we got about 900 plastic scintillator tiles grooved at CTR, Ludhaina. These tiles were assembled in the form of detector and tested with Data Acquisition at Panjab University and TIFR. After complete tested and assembly, these have been integrated with the CMS detector. The final tests and commissioning has been carried by the team of Engineers and Scientists from TIFR and Panjab University and detector is ready to be used. During next 10-15 years, these detectors would be used for the data collection at LHC and we need to make sure the smoothing running of our HO detector with some required upgrade. Group members and students are studying various physics aspects like, Higgs Search, SUSY particle Search, B-physics, Top Quark study, QCD study, etc. With the start of LHC in June/July 2008, the group members have participated in data taking with CMS and physics analysis related to various physics aspects-Higgs,B-physics,QCD,etc. The group also developed expertise in setting up Grid Computing infrastructure for unifying with the WLCG (Worldwide LHC Computing Grid) for doing the distributed data analysis. The required computing hardware/software were configured locally to accomplish these tasks of data analyses.

Dzero Experiment at Fermilab (U.S.A)

Group members are participating in Dzero experiment at Fermilab and are part of International Dzero collaboration. EHEP group of P.U has made significant contribution for hardware and software of D0 experiment at Tevatron energy which led to Top Quark Discovery which was one of the milestone for Particle Physics. Currently we are participating in data analysis and physics studies of signal and background for Higgs and top properties. Group also participates in detector shifts as well as online data monitoring shifts.

ZEUS Experiment at DESY (Germany)

Members of HEP group are involved in the ZEUS experiment at DESY, Germany. The experiment is aimed at studying electron (positron)-proton collisions at HERA accelerator which collided 27.5 GeV electron/positron longitudinally polarized beams with proton of energy 460, 575 and 860 GeV. The physics is dominated by the interactions of gluons and probes the structure of proton down to distances 10-16 cm to confront the Standard Model (SM) of strong and electroweak interactions in search of signals of Physics beyond the SM. Many important physics topics will benefit from data at different center-of-mass energy, such as measuring associated structure function FL , to understand small-x physics, measuring structure functions at higher values of  x leading to more precise extractions of parton distribution functions, measurements of cross sections for longitudinally polarized virtual photons to scatter off protons for inclusive and diffractive physics. The results thus obtained will make an important and essential input to LHC physics.

(ii) Heavy Ion Physics Group:

The Chandigarh group is a part of international collaborations, STAR experiment at RHIC(BNL, USA) and ALICE experiment at LHC (CERN, Geneva), to study QCD matter as a function of density and temperature reached during heavy ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies, i.e. the state of matter existed during the first few microseconds of the big bang. Recent results of four experiments, BRAHMS, PHENIX, PHOBOS and STAR, at RHIC have shown the formation of extremely high energy density system in Au+Au collision, whose description in terms of simple hadronic degrees of freedom is inappropriate. Further more, the constituents of this system (quark-gluon plasma) experience a significant level of interaction with each other inside the medium (liquid state). This is considered to be an ideal gas in the theory of QCD. The minibangs at LHC will briefly reach several times the energy density and the temperature that reached in RHIC collisions. This will be interesting to see if the liquid like behavior witnessed at RHIC will persist at the higher temperature and densities encountered at the LHC.

The research work at Chandigarh is related with the development fabrication and testing of the Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD), read-out chip testing, installation and calibration of PMD, maintenance and data taking during the runtime and in the analysis of data to extract following signals of QGP:

  1. Determination of reaction plane and collective flow.

  2. Fluctuations in the number of produced particles.

  3. Disoriented chiral condensates.

In addition to the above experiments, the group is intended to participate in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at Darmstadt (Germany) also. The experiment offers the possibility to discover the first order deconfinement phase transition and the critical end point of the QCD phase diagram expected to exist at high net baryon densities.

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