Fakulta sportovnich studlI


Adapted from BULMAN ((1994, find and put into referelce list))



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Adapted from BULMAN ((1994, find and put into referelce list))

Reflection in the supervised experience scheme is next step in a process of drawing our attention the potential of the reflection within the supervised experience and mentor/trainee relationship. A considerable amount of emphasis is placed on this post course scheme and both the mentor and learner can develop competence in their respective roles by employing reflection into their work. Mentor assessment forms are provided in the course record book pack and in our opinion are greatly underused, reflective writing could help this often difficult process to become a highly effective two-way development process. Mentor coaches can facilitate reflection with their trainees; however only by the mentor coach also engaging in the process will this skill be developed. Formalized reflection should make the coach more aware of the craft skills that are used and how they are blending craft and professional knowledge into their coaching. Because reflection involves an examination of a unique situation, new knowledge may be generated (craft and professional) such as a technique for teaching the Handspring, strength training methods etc. This knowledge should be disseminated through journals such as this or through regional education programs. We therefore hope that coaches at all levels will share their knowledge, craft and profession sigils in these ways to ensure continuing development that is applicable to the specific disciplines, athletes and contexts in which they work.

 

Women Roles Study

The theoretical frames of women roles study reflect the multiplicity of trends and the comprehensiveness and enlargement of the women subject in several sides. These introductions in whole explore different attempts and trends in studying the roles performed by women in the society and its interpretation. By wide investigations of the theoretical writings and field studies having connection with the women role, and their analysis, it may distinguish between a number of theoretical introductions, dealing with the women case, which, despite their multiplicity, the interest in most thereof is restricted in historical and legislative cases on the account of the interest in actual roles of the women and their development. We will browse the most important of those theoretical introductions in studying the roles performed by the women in the society. (25:91)




  1. Traditional theories

The supporters of this introduction side with the reduction of rural women were case in making victory to they gender, and defending her female entity, and considering the work and contribution as expression of abjuring dependency to the men. There are some women researchers which see that it is the only means by which the women can prove thyself and hide the inferiority complex which they were living in childhood, while some others see that it is termination of the male control problem on the society structure and setting the democratic principle related to the equal opportunities between both genders in the place of such sovereignty from the men part. Such an introduction has resulted in a number of essays, conferences and seminars under the name of “Women Liberation” and “Women Rights”, in which the

The evidences indicate that this conception has satisfied its purposes only in the past but and is no longer attracting the attention as it was before. Thus, we can consulate that continuing in the female liberation trend though the traditional approvals is no longer appropriate to the size of economic and social challenges facing the society. (25:92)


  1. Cultural theory

The supporters of this theory are interesting in the belonging of the individual to a specific type. They interpret the women situation and status in the light of her dependency to the men, in the light of division of work between males and females. The supporters of this principle see that on basis of separation of the women roles and those of the men, the doctrines regime stands, where the separation between role and function is seen, in the most of cultures, as a part of the universe systems, and that any attempt to change the same is considered a threat to the society.

This theory believes that roles performed by women are just a result of a set of social and cultural aspects prevailing in the society. Thus, the nature of those roles and their importance are different as the society, and its culture, differs. The adaptors of this introduction see that the roles of women are different as the phase of their life differs. Therefore, the women status is different as the cultural settings, she lives in, differs.

In general these introductions connect the women and the cultural building nature, in which she lives, which affects the difference of the women roles. Thus, in the light of the economic value, the roles performed by their in the society are determined. So, this introduction confirms the necessity to consider the comprehensive concept of the society culture when planning development programs in general, and women programs in particular, so that no contradiction will occur between the development programs of the society and its culture. (25:93)




  1. Economic theory

It looks the women in the lights of this theory as a production element, contributing in the different economic activities and generating the national income. The supporters of this theory focus on the role that female work force can play in the public economy and determining the works that shall be performed by the women as well as the results incurred thereon, such as roles conflicts and disputes. The economic approved meets the material position in interpreting the women roles in the lights of there participation volume in the production operation, and in interpreting its low status by performing marginal roles and non-giving opportunity to her to participate in and produce goods with high economic value. But the material theory goes in its interpretation to that the understanding of the economic roles of the women in the society is done in the light of understanding the economic order of that society, and it provides importance to the material factors in interpretation. It goes to that the economic construction is the responsible of determining the non-material sides of the society. It confirms the importance of historical understanding of phenomena, as well as the material introduction interprets the women roles in the lights of class variables, representing a basic concept on which this introduction is based in interpretation, where it reflects a set of social and economic characteristics influencing clearly the roles conferred to the women in the society.

(25:95-96)


  1. Dependency theory

The dependency theory represents the transformation from class concept in the material introduction on the dependency concept in interpretation. This attitude is standing on basic concepts, such as control and exploitation by units that are more grown to the less grown ones. This theory is based in its interpretation of the women roles on a basic proposition purporting that the capital production style is emphasizing to staying the women as a standby work power to be sought when a need occurs, and to be left away according to the production requirements. Thus, the women will have no effective role, the matter that maintains the existence of the capital regime. (25:97)

5.Educational theory

The supporters of this idea see that the women role promotion is relied on the development of they knowledge, skills and abilities through education, teaching and training. The downfall of the women role is referred to the insufficiency of her knowledge and skills as well as the non-suitability of the available training programs with them actual needs. The educational theory is considered among the best ones as it aims to develop the women knowledge, to change her endeavor and to improve them skills. Thus, it is a departure necessary point appropriate to the women situation and conditions.


6.Comprehensive Integrated thorny
In previous theories we face specific reflection of the women role and status, as well as the factors influencing the same. It is integration between the economic, organizational and educational theories and connecting the women situations to the degree of progress of the society in general. (25:99)

Pictures of Women in the Islamic Culture

1. Difference of researchers in opinion about the women status in Islam.

A lot of speeches of people have been said in the past and now about the women rights in Islam. There are people who alleged that the Islam violates the women right and devaluated her status, and made her less chance, in a limited narrow life, then it has powered the men on her to marry and divorce her when he wants, and impose on her or merge to her when he wants. She is in all cases subject to what is planned for her in life, and impose on her the abeyance as the servant and served or as owner and owned!!

And there are who the zeal takes them on Islam, and on its doctrines taking the women over and over to the maximum extent making her very happy and perfect, then they write comprehensive fields and long sections, which do not, even they are many, include expect one, two or three sides of those several sides the Islam has dealt therewith regarding women. It has put for them in each side thereof legislation or guidance that no moderate highly cultured women will not greed to have such privilege and care like it is in those doctrines. (29:22)

2. Holy Koran is a mirror of the woman picture in Islam

To read the Koran, and followed its raised standings in the women side, and to find the Koran, alone, is best way to understand the Islam care of women, and its status therein.

There is no speech after that of Allah and no legislation after his. He is the senior governor and the source of legislation, who judges others and others, cannot judge him. Thus, I see to give to the readers a good sentence from the women subjects with which the Koran has dealt, to be a light guiding who is guided by his passions, and affected by different currents, so they take them away from right, and let him falling down in the hell. (29:23)


3. Koran presentation of woman in ten Suras (chapters) or more

Among them is Albakara (Caw) Sura, Alnissa (Women) Sura, Almaida (Table) Sura, Alnor (Light) Sura, Alahzab (Tribes) Sura, Almontahana (She who is Tested) Sura, Altahrim (Prohibition) Sura and Attalak (Divorce) Sura.



4. Human communion between man and women

The Holy Koran has talked about the origin from which the mankind has come, and it made the women a partner of the men in forming such an origin. It made this a boon requiring mankind to be fear from Allah and controlling himself. See his Almighty saying in Alnissa (Women) Sura . (Men have fear of your Lord, who created you from a single soul. From that soul He created its mate, and through them He bestrewed the earth with countless men and women. Fear Allah, in whose name you plead with one another, and honor the mothers who bore you. Allah is ever watching over). “Alnissa Sura, Verse 1”. (29:24)


5. Personality of woman and her freedom

Islam has made a right to women in homage of hearing and obeying, and performing the legislation and its rules. See his Almighty saying in Almumtahana (She Who is Tested) Sura (O Prophet, if believing women comes to you and pledge themselves to associate in worship nothing with Allah, to commit neither theft, nor adultery, nor child-murder, to utter no monstrous falsehoods (concerning the fatherhood of their children), and to disobey you in nothing just, accept their allegiance and implore Allah to forgive them. Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. “Almumtahana Sura, Verse 12”.

And among the kind said about the homage of Prophet to the women: That Hadith “speech” made between him PBUH and Hend daughter of Otba, wife of Abusufian, during the time of homage. He PBUH said (I mage homage to you that you won’t polytheists with Allah), then Hend said: How it is required from us what we did not accept it from the men? Then he PBUH said (and not make theft), then Hend said: Abusufian is a stingy man, and take something from his money, but I don’t know if it is lawful for me or not? Then Abusufian said who was present: What you have taken in the past is lawful. Then the Messenger of Allah PBUH smiled and knew her, he said to her (You are Hend daughter of Otba)? She said: Yes, forgive me what has passed, Prophet of Allah, then Allah will forgive you! He PBUH said (and not making fornication), then she said: Did the free women make fornication?! He PBUH said (and not killing your children), she said: We have brought them up young, and you killed them adult. You and them know that “Referring the kill of her son Handhala, in Badr Battle”, Omar has laughed insomuch he fell down on his back, and he PBUH smiled, and say (and not making falsehood), she said: Falsehood is a bad thing, and you order us only to the mindfulness and good morals. He PBUH said (and not disobey me in just), she said: I swear by Allah we did not seat here intending to disobey you in anything. You seen such a Hadith, as I see every time when I read it, the evidences of (female leadership) drawn on the face of Hend daughter of Otba .

It you know that who has told this Hadith is Umaima daughter of Rukia, ten you also see on her face, her too, the evidences of (female movement secretary). Oh what like of this night to yesterday one!

See this wonderful phenomenon, it is that of women freedom and her dialogue with the Prophet PBUH, which is a freedom that men do not dream the reform at the worldwide most democrat kings.
6. Women independence

We, perhaps, take from the homage of the Prophet to women, a homage independent from men, as Islam looks to them as responsible of themselves, a special responsibility different from the man one. Enough clear verses deciding such a great principle in favor of woman. (25:29)

Read, if you want, his Almighty in Altahrim (Prohibition) Sura (Allah has given as example to the unbelievers the wife of Noah and the wife of Lot. They were married to two of our righteous servants, but they deceived them. Their husbands availed them noting against Allah. The angels said to them: “Enter the Fire, together with those that shall enter it”. But to the faithful, Allah has given as example Pharaoh’s wife, who said “Lord, build me a house with your in Paradise and deliver me from Pharaoh and his misdeeds. Deliver me from a wicked nation”). “Altahrim Sura, verses 10 and 11”.

Thus, women in Koran, is not affected, when she is a righteous, the corruption of man nor his tyranny. A contrary, when she is corrupt, the rightness of man can not benefit her in the same independent responsibility related to her business before Allah. It was necessary as for her independence in responsibility that she shall be equal to the man with respect to reward against good deeds, and punishment against misdeeds. Read his Almighty saying (…But the believers who do works, whether men or women, shall enter paradise. They shall not suffer the least of injustice) “Alnissa Sura, verse 124”.

And read his Almighty saying (…. Their Lord answers them, saying: I will deny no man or woman among you the reward of their labors. You are the offspring of one another….) “Al Imran Sura, verse 195”.

Interpreters said that his verse when it came, while Om-Sulma – Could Almighty Allah be satisfied of her work – said the Messenger of Allah PBUH (I do hear Allah mentions men in Hijra “Immigration” but not for women).

If this is true – that the coming of this verse is because of Om-Sulma inquiry – then it evidences that the women feels, since antiquity, that she has a right as the man has, or that she has been since antiquity working to raise such a right and obtain it, and she does like that her life expires being in the shadow of man contacted through him, preached through him and warned through

him, and that she looks to the man, since antiquity also, as a partner in the life, trying, if left in his character, to overcome her, and to delete her mention form the life affairs. (29:26)


7. Women in pleading and discussing
The Holy Koran did not stop at this extent, but it has respected the women opinion, and heard her, and decided the same as a legislation for all Read his Almighty saying (Allah has heard the words of her “Khawla daughter of Thaalaba” who pleaded with you concerning her husband and made her plaint to Allah. Allah has heard the arguments of both of you. He hears all and observes all). “Almujadila Sura, verse 1”.

8. Women and good ruse

It illustrates how a women has saved using good ruse a child, whom acts of Allah decided his staying, in order to be a message among those coming from heaven to earth, to disinfect the humanity from polytheism and paganism dirties, as well as to spread the doctrines of right guidance and peace in all over the world. You see his Almighty saying about the sister of Mussa “Moses” PBUH in Alqassas (Narratives) Sura (… She said to them: Shall I direct you to a family who will bring him up for you and take good care of him?) “Alqassas Sura, verse 12”.

And when his mother let him in the sea fearing from Pharaohs to hurt him, then Pharaohs have taken him, and the wife of Pharaohs king said: (Pharaoh’s wife said to him: Here is a joy of the eye for me and for you. Do not slay him. He may be of use to us, or we may adopt him as our son). “Alqassas Sura, verse 9”.
9. Women and insight

The Holy Koran has mentioned the insight of deduction of ambiguous realities at a women in the past, where you see in his Almighty saying in Alnaml (Ants) Sura about the Queen of Sheba (……But I shall send them a present and see with what reply my enjoys will return) “Alnaml Sura, verse 33”. It has been talked that she said, if he is really a prophet, then he will not accept our present, and this latter will not prevent him to notify his Lord’s matter. And if he is so, then he will enjoy it and return back from our fighting. And she was right in her estimation. (29:30)



Women Rights in Islam

Islam has set the women in there right place, where it has granted them humanitarian, civil and economic rights. This is clear in several Suras mentioning the women business, which are abundant, among which is Albakara (the Caw), Almaida (the Table), Alnaml (the Ants), Almujadila (She who pleaded), Alahzab (the Tribes), Altahrim (the Prohibition) Suras, but Alnissa (Women) Sura is the most one dealing with the women, as it mentioned the internal stability, and clarified the basics ensuring the sustainability of such stability and its activity. The Suras have mentioned the following basics: Homage of women, family regime, equality between men and women in earning within the limits of power, women freedom in herself and funds –woman financial rights – wedding regime.

Islam has set thereby the basic supports to build the sound human society. The first thing that Islam has decided and ensured to women are they human value, as recognizing them as human is a recognition of all rights required by human nature. Islam in evaluating such a value is just confirming with no doubt hat her role in building and contributing in the human activity.

The women are symbolically the half of society. When accompanies the man in the life’s long desolate road. Almighty Allah clarified the purpose of women existence, as they grants life for present and future, and she is the secret of continuity and durability, as well as the Koran denied what is sunk in the minds that the women are the secret of devil and humanity corruption. (3:55)



  1. Men and women participation in responsibility

The Holy Koran between men and women in the right of education, and in the religious responsibility before Allah. And decided that there is no different between human, male and female, they will be awarded their works, if good then is good, and if bad then is bad. Among its principles is Almighty saying in Alzalzala (the Earthquake) Sura (…. Whoever does an atom’s weight of good shall see it, and whoever does an atom’s weight of evil shall see it also). “Alzalzala Sura, verses 7, 8”.



  1. Women right in prevention from ignorance and hardworking

If prevention of relatives from the Lasting Life Hell is obligatory, which it may not be unless by education and guidance to what Allah has imposed it as rights and duties, then their prevention from this world fire, which is a life of ignorance, hardworking and irregularity, not less that the obligation of prevention from the hell. Koran has connected between the two happiness, and made the happiness of this world is a means of that of the Lasting Life. See his Almighty saying (Who is blind in this lowest world, then he will be in the lasting life more blind and more lost in his way) “Taha Sura, vesre 72”.

  1. Women right in civil dispositions

The Holy Koran did not stop with the women at the limit of equality with men in the education and opinion respect right, but it has equalized them in ownership right and conclusion of contracts of actions of all types, and it made for her a private property. See his Almighty saying in Alnissa (Women) Sura (…. If you wish to have a woman in the place of a (divorced) one, do not take from her anything from the dowry you have given her even if it be a talent of gold ;Anissa Suram 20 ;
4. Women right in heritage

The Holy Koran has made a right in heritage with different considerations, and invalidated the pre-Islam rule guiding nothing in the heritage for the women. He Almighty said in Alnissa (Women) Sura (Men shall have a share in what their parents and kinsmen leave; and women shall have a share in what their parents and kinsmen leave; whether it be little or much, it is legally theirs) “Anissa Sura, verse 7”.

And He Almighty decided her share in heritage considered as a spouse (You shall inherit the half of what your wives leave if they die childless. If they leave children, a quarter of what they leave shall be yours after payment of any bequest they may have bequeathed or debt. And your wives shall inherit the one quarter of what you leave if you die childless. If you leave children, an eighth of what you leave shall be theirs after payment of any bequest you may have bequeathed or debt) “Anissa Sura, verse 12”.

As well as He Almighty has decided her share in heritage considered as a daughter (Allah has thus enjoined you concerning your children. A male shall inherit twice as much as a female. If there be more than two girls, they shall have two thirds of the inheritance, but if there is one only, she shall inherit the half……) “Anissa Sura, verse 11”.



5. Women right in concluding contracts

The Holy Koran has given them the right of concluding civil contracts, such as purchase or sale, and allowed them to authorize others in all what she owns by herself, and to be an attorney of others in all what they own. It has allowed her to guarantee others, and to be guaranteed by others, as did with men in all such actions.



6. Women right in preceding the wedding contract

If we return to the Holy Koran in this case, we find it adding such a disposition to the women herself. See his Almighty saying (…. and any other believing women who gives herself to you and whom wished to take in marriage. This is only for you and not for any other believer) “Alahzab Sura, verse 50”. (32:220-225)



Physical education in the Islamic civilization

The dawn of Islam raised in the seventh century AC. From the Arab Peninsula, rushed the Messenger, bringing the right way and light torch bringing good news of a heaven highest message.

Islam calls to the permanent innovation and development in the Moslem society behavior, intending to enrich and promote it to achieve welfare and justice, and also to achieve comprehensive growth to the Moslem individual through interesting in the different sides of his personality. (26:98)

The Islamic society interested in the physical education intending for body education to the Moslem individual, as it has interested in several sports, and several Koran verses and prophet Mohamed's assay, as well as proverbs have mentioned the importance of practicing sports by Moslems and the importance of taking care of the body, where Almighty Allah has said in the wise Koran (…. Muster against them all the men and cavalry at our disposal, so that you make terror into the enemies of Allah and your enemy, and others besides them whom you do not know but Allah does. All that you give for the cause of Allah shall be repaid to you, and shall not be wronged) “Alanfal (the Spoils) Sura, verse 60”.

And his Almighty saying (... Believers, Allah will put you to the proof by means of some game which you can catch with your hands and with your spears, so that He may know those who fear Him in secret. He that transgresses hereafter shall be sternly punished). “Almaida (table) Sura, verse 94”.

Prophet Mohamed's assay which has been mentioned for the Prophet PBUH and for his accompaniers SBOT (satisfaction is on them) proved the interest by the Islamic society in physical education and its perception of its importance of the Moslem individual.

The Messenger of Allah has considered the body among the rights that the Moslem shall observe them, then he said (Your Lord has a right on you, your body has a right on you and your family has a right on you, then give everyone who has right his right). (26:99)

It is mentioned for the messenger (Capture five before five, your life before your death, your health before your sickness, you leisure before your occupation, your youth before your old age, and your richness before your poorness).

Albaihiki has cited in the Alraraidh Book, from his Sunnas, that the Messenger said (Everything which is not mention of Allah is distraction and mental inattention, except four things: Walking of man between two landmarks for shooting, domesticating his horse, playing with his wife, and learning the swimming).

Albukhari has cited that the Messenger of Allah saw people competing in shooting their arrows, then he PBUH said (Go shooting children of Ismail, Your father was a shooting man, shoot and I support someone people, then the others stop shooting, then He PBUH asked them, Why you stop shooting, they said: How can we shoot if you are with them, then He PBUH said: Shoot, I support of all).

And by Khaled son of Yazid Eljuhani, said: Okba son of Amer was passing with saying Oh Khaled, let us go shooting. The Khaled said come on tell you what the Messenger of Allah said, He said:


  • “Allah enters with one arrow three peoples into heaven: His manufacturer intending to have a hire from Allah in manufacturing it, his shooter and his assistant. And

  • Shoot and ride, and I prefer you’re shooting more than your riding.

  • There is distraction except in three things: Horse domestication, playing with the wife and shooting with arrows. And.

  • HE who leave the shooting after having learnt it, then he will be an ungrateful of such a benediction”.

By Abu Umama son of Shefi, he has heard Okba son Amer saying: I heard the Messenger of Allah PBUH on the platform saying “The power is shooting, the Power is shooting”. (26:100)

By Abu Sulma son of Nafaa said: Oh Messenger of Allah, our child shall have a right as our right on them. Then He said: “Yes, the right of child on his father is to teach him swimming, shooting, writing and to let him sound money”.

By Kais son of Abu Hazem said: I saw Khaled son of Walid on the day of Yarmouk between two targets with men among the accompaniers of Mohamed, saying “We have ordered to teach our children shooting and Koran”.

And by Zaid son of Haritha, that Omar son of Elkhatab has written to the mayors of Damascus that they shall learn shooting, and to walk between the two targets without shoes, and they shall teach their children riding and swimming.

By Nezar son of Sebra said: Omar son of Elkhatab has written to us three things: Learn walking without shoes between the two shooting targets, receive cedar and learn shooting.

Elcordobi has mentioned for the Messenger PBUH saying: “Shoot and ride, when you shoot is better than when you ride”. The shooting basics are four: Speed – Shooting force – Impacting the target – Gaining. Moreover, the shooting needs four things: Arch – string – Arrow – Shooter. (26:101)

Moslems have known kinetic skills, which now are called exercising. Omar son of Elkhatab SBOH was jumping on his horse in a skilled and professional manner showing excellent movement. Which is more wonderful is he was terminating the jump with a wonderful stability. The experts in modern gymnastics know the extent of skill of the player who will be quite stable after a skill displacement movement transferring it into calm. Omar son of Elkhatab has claimed also his mayors to teach them jumping and riding the horses. In Amawit eras, drawings were found on the chase places walls and countries palaces evidencing the practice of the like of gymnastics by some people, with skill and professional body situations. In Fatimit era, in Egypt some people appeared influent in horse riding, playing and performing kinetic skills over the horse backs when they are moving thereon. The one of them go under the horse venters and turn on the back of the horse again from the other side.

There were among them who stand and sit on the horse back when this latter is running speedily. In Otoman era the kinetic skills, or what they called now (Acrobats), were one of the most important sportive activities induced by Otoman Sultans. The word (Kombaz) light trousers worn by sportsmen, perhaps this is the origin of work (Jombaz “Gymnastics”). It is said that some tribes existing in Egyptian countries were distinct by their kinetic excellent skills over the back of horse, among them is the Jomabaz Men Tribe, and plural of Jombaz (Gymnastics), then it may be a transfer of their name. (1:295,296)


Philosophy of Islamic education towards the importance to practice physical education

It is mentioned that the Messenger of Allah was practicing walking sports whether in his movements to prayer or his visits or his Hijra (Immigration). Further to the Hajj (Pilgrimage) manners, which is among the five basics of Islam, is relied on the walking and trotting, such as circulating around the House (Kaaba), seeking between Safaa and Marwa. The Sunna has induced too the practice of sports of racing of different types, among that is the racing of our Messenger to Aisha. The Messenger of Allah has emphasized to invest distraction in sports and training on arrows shooting, so that the leisure time will expire usefully, and thus people can maintain skills acquired and polished them continually. (6:104)

The Islam different directives has shown that different physical sports are a part of the Islamic education philosophy method, stipulated in the prophet Mohamed's assay of the Messenger, intending to reinforce the body and helping it supporting and effort spending. It is intended also to take the man share in life and enjoy it. (29:50)

Philosophic concept of sociology towards physical education


Awatef Abul-Ala (1972) sees that the educational effects of the physical education depend on the atmosphere or climate in which the activity is practiced. The states have had recourse to the sportive education and interested therein as an important and effective means of the education. Where the sportive education is distinct by that it seeks the personality breeding on the road of commencement with body development, like the mental and aesthetic education. That is to say the body care here is a means leading to the personality promotion and achieving the education operation. (7:45)

Saad Mursi Ahmed and others (1970) indicated that scientific researches have proved the importance of the social culture aspects and practice of standings in forming the required trends in the composition of the right personality. Thus, the physical education may, with respect to its nature, be proud on all subjects, as it is the experience, reaction, practice, standings and fields' subject. It is a scientific applied subject dealing with the personality behavior, the player is its lab and the tools are its apparatuses. (33:10)

Hassan Ahmed Eshafea (1995) has mentioned that the sociology meets the sports where the first interest in individuals study and the manner how to build a better social system and based on the education in trying spreading the happiness, love and forgiveness among the society. (It is believed that the physical education, in turn, performs the role of solving social problems. The physical education as a part of the education in general contributes effectively in the education task. Thus, the physical education is just a social experience, and through the sportive activity, individuals may step widely and speedily towards the social progress and formation of sound trends in life) (18:63)

Charles Biocher (1964) mentioned that the sociologists went to that the scientific needs related to the methods by which the individual conditions himself and these needs include cooperation, harmony and interest in the opinion of others as well as the desire in affecting the others and feeling the tranquility by man inside his society. The respect by the individual of himself and of his relationships with the group in deciduas, in which he is a member. It may achieve the men needs though working, playing and entertainment. But if the individual can not satisfy those needs with sound methods, then it incur thereon a non-social and miss-harmony behavior. The physical education and sports shall interest in the problems related to the social formation in the society. It is indicated that the sociologists went to that the social needs are those related to the methods by which the individual conditions himself with his society. Those needs include the cooperation, harmony, love, familiarity and interest in the opinion of others as well as the desire of affecting others and feeling the tranquility by the men inside the society frame in where he lives. The individual respect is affected by his relations with other individuals in the group in which he is a member. It may achieve the men needs through working, playing and entertainment. But if the individual can not satisfy those needs with sound methods, then it incur thereon a non-social and behavior miss-conditioning. (11:86)


Mohamed Atef Ghaith (1979) indicated that the human nature is distinct usually by its ability to acquire human features which are a part of the environment in which the individual lives. In addition to it’s distinct by intelligence and thought. A man owns a thought system enabling them take, decisions and checking his behavior and conditioning with the standings. Thus, the individual social development appears. From one hand, we find him interesting in the big world and people, in the welfare of humanity wholly, and from another side, interesting in life surrounding him and connected with his personal ambitions and hopes. (27:5)

Farouq Mohamed Elaadli and Hasan Hammam (1979) indicated that the sociologists stipulates the necessity of finding basics of cooperation for social living between the individuals with the existence of participation, insomuch as people do not prevent each other. That is to say the individuals shall develop the friendship among them. Among the duties of each individual is to try always to not be centralized about himself, but he has to meet others in the mid-road, thus, the points of view converge and disputes between individuals and on the individual level. He shall show his readiness to make friendship with others. The cooperation will not be achieved, but with sympathy and palling among people. (14:18)


Women right in practicing sports in Islam


The sports are socio cultural phenomenon. Such as this is approved by Islam, which the real method including all human real virtues. It is a sort of social experience, as it includes all required elements. Thus, we find Islam interesting in the sports as one of the education means, or a part of the general education operation for the perfect men. This is clear in the following features:
Islam does not ignore bodies after Allah has created them and innovated them using his Almighty wisdom. So, it meets with the sports in interesting in body.

Islam is a working and socially practical religion. It must spend an effort to achieve the abundant production, and to be able for work, it must have the force enabling him its performance. Therefore, it praises sports to acquire physical fitness.

All advices, directives and guidance with which the religion has come in the extent of social solidarity, make the people equal in rights and duties are the same of the physical education and sports intending to achieve cooperation and solidarity as well as to terminate all social differences.

Islam encourages and prefers sport practice as it has virtues in raising sportive spirit and disinfecting souls from rancor, hate, jealousy, bad feeling, arrogance and hypocrisy.

The religion looks to the life as a victory and defeat, raise and down. So it praises sports as the instrument ensures the several standings of training on victory one time, and defeat other time, which contributes in the acquisition of modesty character when victory and self-control when defeat occur. Thus, it represents the summit of the real sportive soul.

Obligations of Islam themselves which are required obligatory from Moslems are originally sportive works return in interest for the body, such as the prayer.

Fasting obligation in which Moslems will supporting preventing themselves from eat and drink from the dawn up to sundown is a sport training the Moslem to support difficulties and be patient and to have a strong power of sufferance.

The legislative stipulation indicated expressly the sports and encourages its practice.

The sports matter and its practice is not restricted, in Islam, to the men only without the women, but it included both of them, as the women are the half of the society, and when the religion orders the practice of sports, it is for men and women, provided that they shall not go away from there chasteness and abstinence, and from what touch them shyness, in the legal guaranteed limits, where the legal stipulations while addressed to the Moslems, they are for both sex (19:406).

Social culture aspects preventing women to practice in the

Sportive activity


  1. Social classes aspects

It is represented in the abstaining by the high and medium classes' children and those their parents are occupied by their professional, administrative and technical jobs.

The high and medium classes' ideology is interesting in study and scientific comprehension to be qualified to occupy important positions in the society in the future. These jobs need a degree of qualification, training and skill. From another hand, this class does not encourage their sons and daughters to participate in the leisure and innovation activities. So, the medium class has to change its ideology, as the sports have an impact in the growth of rigorous personality psychologically and socially. (20:22)

A study conducted by Fawkia Abdul Birr (1987) has indicted that the problems related to the technical sides of training have obtained the upper percentage regarding the importance, while the problems related to the health and psychological sides in training have obtained the last ranking regarding the importance. (13:120)

A study conducted by Samira Ahmed and Mukhtar Said Milud (1999) indicated also that the students abstaining the practice of the sportive activity is referred to the following reasons: Non-availability of free time during the scholar day – Non-allocation of a place specific for the students to practice the sportive activity – The study system in colleges does not meet the practice of the sportive activity – Scarcity of supervisors on the sportive activity (34:7)

A study conducted by Budawed Abdulyamin (1992) has indicated that among the most important reasons of rural girl’s pupils abstaining to practice physical and sportive education in the Algerian secondary schools area: Inexistence of constructions specified to the girls pupils to practice physical education and sports – Non-encouragement of their family to practice the physical education and sports. (10:46-55)

A study conducted by Najwa Fawzi Anis (2000) has reached to that there is a scarcity of interesting by media in broadcasting the basketball matches. There is an administrative policy in the Union towards all Clubs trying the formation of a team – Inexistence of basketball women coaches in the Unions – Inexistence of special playgrounds suitable for training the female teams –Existence of social reasons, such as wedding, preventing the continuity of girl in playing – non-consent of the family on the participation. (31:49)



  1. Social and Environmental milieu aspects the women

This is the milieu surrounding the women and the fact of there social status in the society, as well as the degree of there independency and liberation from the men influence and existence of sportive and entertainment facilities which help them exploit the leisure times positively which in turn give them interest, then for the entire society. Despite the improvement occurred on the social status of the women, the women freedom in practicing the sportive activities and effectiveness practiced by the man still limited and superseded by the preservative traditional side.

The social standings brought by the society towards the practice by sports by women are distinguished by negativity. The society wants the women to focus them energies on the home, studying and job duties, and does not want them to practice the different leisure activities, especially the sportive activities because if they did so they goes out the role determined by the society for them.

The factor preventing the participation of women in the sportive games are the Inexistence of enough financial potentialities and sportive facilities. The schools and colleges girls students, for example, indicated in several studies and scientific researches many of hindrances: Inexistence of sportive squares, inexistence of sportive instruments special to girls students – inexistence of separated places for play, where a lot of them prefer to be away from the places of males to practice sports. (21:90)

But a study conducted by Maissa Mohamed Elena (1994) had indicated the importance of the social status of each women students, where they found a positive relationship between the social status of women students and both of general sportive ability and the skilled performance in basketball –the general sportive ability and the skilled performance level increase as the social status of female students raises, who are practicing sports do not get enough encouragement from the family and friends. (24:199218)


Essam Elhellali has mentioned (1999) the need to adopting a concept more flexible and comprehensive of the women sports, free from limitation to competition sports and directed to include the entertainment and health sports for the different women ages regardless their economic abilities and their class belonging.(12:9-10)

3. Religious and moral aspects

There is a big group of women not practicing sports because of religious and moral factors. The religious values and principles as per the thinking of some women and a great number of the society individuals, the practice of sports contradicts the religious principles and values, as the sport practicing requires wearing sports wears prohibited by the Islamic religion, as well as there sports practice requires to be with men, this is prohibited by the religion, and that they shall perform duties and obligations which are more important than practicing sports. (3:128)

The Islamic religion does not prevent women to practice in reactions and sportive games, which strengthen and develop women's mentality, body and personality, and prevent them from diseases. The religion does not prevent the women to be with the men during performing the work, as well as does not prevent her wearing reasonable sports wear, helping her performing sportive exercises. The Islamic Arab history is full of examples and facts showing the cooperation and solidarity of women with the men in all live fields relied on the society in its movement and progress, such as construction, urban, sciences, literatures, arts, philosophy and war. In the field of literatures, some Arab women, namely Elkhansaa, Khawla daughter of Azwar, Sakina daughter of Hussein, have performed a distinct role in the Islamic Arab society., In the field of war, for example, the Arab women were in the Islam era fighting beside the man, where she has performed a great role in the expansion of the Islamic State, and spreading the Islam principles in all over the world. Further to that the Islamic religion and Arab original morals think that the women liberation from all bonds and injustices burdened her were imposed by the pre-Islamic society. They believe in the necessity of her participation with the man in all his works and activities, and looking forward to the development of the women personality and exploding her physical and mental innovating potentialities in the service of family and society. This evidences that the Islamic religion and its heaven greatest principles and good morals aim to liberate the women and let her free from bonds and antique non-human rules, which were imposed on her in the dark periods from our nation history. (3:129)

Opening the field to the women to participate in the efficacies and sportive games as well as to invest them times with leisure good means, do not contradict the principles of the religion and its ethics, but in contrary, it is in harmony therewith and enhances her potentialities and innovative energies, and develops her personality and breaks the social bonds which has shackled her freedom and destroyed her ambitions.

Therefore, we deduct that the substance of the Islamic religion and its valuable and moral soul defend the women rights and legal ambitions, and they do not contradict the women looking forward towards the participation in the sportive activities and the leisure activities, while the same is aiming to free her from the bonds and rules and make to their a psychological and social entertainment as well as explode there innovative physical mental potentialities. (9:58)

A study conducted by Ali Mohamed Mutawea (1999) has clarified that the inexistence of moral differences between the girl students of primary, secondary and academic education stages in Tripoli support Acquisition of the physical and health body – acquisition moral and administrative features – acquisition of social relationships – acquisition of mental and psychological sides – leisure time spending motives. The study has indicated that those motives are constant. (4:10-11)


Cultural aspects

A study conducted by Mohamed Hossein and others (1999) had indicated that among the most important reasons behind the non-practice of sports are: Inexistence of leisure time with a percentage of 48%, followed by inexistence of sportive consciousness in schools and universities with percentage of 30.7%, as well as the non-perception of individuals with the importance of sports. As for housewives, they mentioned that the cost raising is a main reason with a percentage of 44%, as to the males class, they showed the thinking of practice negativity on the study comprehension with a percentage of 31.3%. (28:18)

The study made by k0ra Brent (1999) has dealt with the field resulting in the chronic poorness context, inside the society of South Africa through social anthropological insufficiency. Two case studies have been performed to investigate the manner of practicing by women their traditional and professional roles as to them, and the study discussed the poorness aspects and effect on the women live, as well as the different strategies with their marginal lower social situations. The first case study: It represents the rural sample in the absence of men, the immigrants; we find that women find a social temporary status in representing the local political leadership through (traditional dancing teams). As to the second case study: It represents a more vast frame of city women spreading geographically, who are subscribers in national developed sportive projects. Both studies indicated that the physical culture field may be found despite the external initiative or the women strategy in authorizing the power, ideology and social status in the social graduation limiting the real change and power entitlement. (23:14)

A study conducted by Amine Anwar Alkhuli (1999) has indicated that the women in her trip across the sports has been faced by plenty obstacles and problems, and still, despite, the civilization jump of humanity, and they are on the doorstep of the third millennium, but the women still suffering from her relation with sports, insomuch as she may be obliged to choose from two roles, the women softness or sports. If the problem is not solved definitively in the western developed world, then the situation in the Arab world is worse. The issue is not just abstaining by women to practice sports, as it is a situation of social psychological expatriation regarding the sports especially in the shadow of what we live such as straying in the concepts and conflict in values and principles. This study adopted the philosophic introduction known by its comprehensive and analytical view along the men civilization, and to know there historical sufferance. This study is relied on the cultural social material in trying to live with the women n fact in sports in the lights of social considerations, such as naturalizing the women and upbringing them socially on sports (2:4)




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