Sections of this report were deleted prior to publication as they contain personal information, business information and/or information currently under consideration by the Australian Government
The National Career Development Strategy Research Project
Prepared by Miles Morgan Australia
Miles Morgan Pty Ltd • C2/58 Newcastle St Western Australia 6000
T 08 92288089 • F 08 93289876 • firstname.lastname@example.org • www.milesmorgan.com.au
The National Career Development Strategy Research Project 1
Element 1 1
Final Report 1
Prepared by Miles Morgan Australia 1
1March 2011 1
1Executive Summary 3
1.1What is Career Development? 3
1.2The Evidence Base 5
1.3Criteria for Effective Practice 6
1.4State and Territory Career Development Services 23
1.5Australian Government Initiatives 23
3THE LITERATURE REVIEW 32
3.1The Challenge to Provide Evidence 32
3.2Measuring Effectiveness 33
3.3The Existing Evidence Base 35
3.4The Positive Effects of Career Development Interventions 39
3.5Best Practice Career Development Service Delivery Models 51
3.6Providing Lifelong Access to Career Development Services 52
3.7Suggested Criteria for Effective Practice 78
This report presents the findings of research, consultation and literature review designed to underpin the development of Australia’s first national career development strategy, which will seek to address and cater for the career development and transition management needs of all young Australians (aged 5-24).
This research forms one part of a four-element process to develop a national career development strategy: the other three elements being:
Identification and analysis of the career development needs and wants of young people from the ages of 5-24, their parents, teachers and communities
Development of options for a national approach/strategy for career development support for young people from the ages of 5-24, and
A cost-benefit analysis of these options.
This report will therefore, where pertinent, provide part of the evidence base for the other strands of the strategy’s development.
The findings here are based on three avenues of research activity:
Consultation with a panel of nominated experts to guide the focus of the literature review, and
Consultation with key career development representatives in each state and territory and with representatives of the institutions and agencies that provide career development services to young people.
The focus of the literature review in Element 1 was to identify:
Best-practice career development models
Any impacts, benefits or effectiveness of career development practices on youth transitions
The skills young people need to develop to enable them to manage their careers into the future, and
Ways to address the needs of specific target groups.
Based upon the existing literature on “best” or “effective” practice, the researchers were required to devise a set of proposed criteria for effective practice to inform options for a national career development strategy and system.
The provision of advice on a number of specified Australian Government career resources, services and initiatives.
1.1What is Career Development?
Career development is the lifelong process of managing progression in learning and work. The quality of this process significantly determines the nature and quality of individuals’ lives: the kind of people they become, the sense of purpose they have, the income at their disposal. It also determines the social and economic contribution they make to the communities and societies of which they are part (Watts, undated publication).
The development of a career is a unique process for every individual and is affected by a wide range of influences such as the attributes, aptitudes and values of the individual, and the social and economic circumstances of their family and the wider community in which they live.
Our careers develop naturally and unintentionally, as we grow. In childhood, ideas about life, learning and work roles are expressed in play and are based on the views and experiences of adults with whom children identify. In adolescence, career exploration is based on identifying interests, abilities, capacities and values; learning about further education and the world of work through observing adults engage in work and study; and through taking a part-time job.
Providing people with accurate and current career information and advice and learning experiences that help them to develop career management skills, will foster the development of their careers in more intentional ways.
Nine years ago, Patton and McMahon stated that, “It is no longer startling to refer to the dramatic changes in the world of work” (2001, 3). At that time the changes referred to by many authors included the:
Relevant changes to government policy and legislation related to child-care provision for women in the workforce and school-to-work transition, and
Demographic trends related to new entrants to the market, including women and migrants (adapted from Patton and McMahon, 2001).
The nature of these changes has shifted over the intervening years, and others have emerged:
Access Economics highlight the ageing of the Australian workforce with “Population growth … slowing and, in particular, working-age population growth … slowing as the number of new retirees a year is growing while the number of new entrants” is in decline (2006, 10)
The continuing ramifications of the global financial crisis are impacting on international labour markets in a variety of ways
Climate change has seen the adaptation and creation of occupations needed to address commitments to reduced emissions, and
Technological change, including Web 2.0 and the development of new infrastructure such as the National Broadband Network has ramifications for service delivery.
All point to the need for individuals, more than ever, to be prepared for a career management process that will need to be maintained throughout their lives. Effective career services therefore seek to “help young people to make career decisions not just now, but also in the future, and thereby to construct their careers. Moreover, (young people) need to be helped to understand that they will continue to develop their career management skills throughout their lives” (Watts 2010, 3).
As Gillie and Gillie-Isenhour (2003) argue:
Career self-management is the internalisation of career development processes that enable an individual to navigate and prosper in a world of work in which one’s relationship to employment is in a state of flux, in which changing jobs and employers is the norm (3).