Global Development



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Global Development

of Technical College, Community College,

and Further Education

Paul A. Elsner

George Boggs

Judith Irwin

AACC Press

One Dupont Drive

Washington, D.C.

© 2007

Acknowledgements

This publication would not have been possible without the assistance of several people. In addition to the 38 contributing chapter authors, we received considerable editing support by Diane Merrell, assistant to Paul Elsner, Gayona Beckford-Barclay for review of format and editing, and further editing assistance from Laura Phipps Darr, assistant to Paul Elsner. We also were aided by James McKenney and Judith Irwin for securing both the German and Danish contributing chapter authors, Diana Kelly for referral to the Ireland contributing authors, the staff of The AACC Press, most especially Deanna D’Errico who gave special counsel to this enormous project. We also received numerous referrals to national ministries and policy agencies, such as OECD, UNESCO, and the World Bank.


Foreword

Global Development of Technical College, Community College, and Further Education



George R. Boggs
Across the globe, countries are expanding and strengthening postsecondary education systems. In the increasingly global society and economy, education and training beyond customary compulsory primary and secondary education is now seen as essential to a nation’s competitiveness and the standard of living of its people. The need to open the doors of higher or further education beyond the relatively limited enrollments in elite and selective universities has spawned a movement to develop or expand institutions that are generally less expensive, more accessible, more flexible, and tied closer to business and industry. This book describes the systems that have developed in over 20 countries to meet these needs.
These institutions go by different names: community colleges, technical colleges, technical universities, polytechnics, further education (FE) institutions, technical and further education (TAFE) institutions, institutes of technology, colleges of technology, and junior colleges. Their evolution has been shaped by the needs that have emerged in various regions, political and economic pressures, and the visions of leaders. The institutions vary as to whether they are public, private, or private for-profit. The missions vary as to the level of degrees or qualifications they can award and their focus on vocational/technical education or academic liberal arts. In some countries, they are considered part of the higher education system; in others, there is a marked separation between higher education and further education. In some places, they are part of university systems; in others they stand alone. In some countries, students can transfer credits that they earn in these institutions to universities; in others, they cannot. In some countries, the institutions are governed centrally; in others, governance systems are localized. Some focus more on younger students; while others serve adults and their need for lifelong learning.
What, then, defines this sector? Common elements include, for the most part, open access, a non-elitist orientation, a focus on the success of students in their learning, responsiveness to the educational needs of local communities and their industries, and a willingness to be creative and to avoid bureaucratic processes. In most countries, the institutions lack the prestige of the elite universities even though the well being of a country and its people usually depend more upon the educational level of the majority rather than a small minority. In the United States, almost half of all students in higher education are enrolled in community colleges, and some of its alumni have received Nobel prizes or been recognized in other notable ways.
So far as we know, this is the first book that describes this unique sector as it has developed (and is developing) throughout the world. Because of the many differences in governance, funding, and structure, there is much to be learned about the successes and limitations of different systems in different environments. We hope this book will be useful to those who wish to develop or to strengthen the postsecondary education systems in their countries.

Table of Contents
Foreword…………………………..……………………………...…...…George Boggs
Introduction……………..………………………………………...………Paul A. Elsner

Framing an Analysis of Global Developments

of Technical, Community College, and Further Education
Australia……………………………………………………...…..……Antoine Barnaart

Australia’s Vocational Education And Training Sector



Canada…………………………………………………………..……Michael L. Skolnik

Community Colleges and Further Education in Canada
Chile………..…...…...Mary Crabbe Gershwin, Philip Cary, Marcelo Von Chrismar,

Cristobal Silva, and Shelley L. Wood

The Chilean Experience in Technical and Further Education:

Public Policies and Private Providers
China……………….……….Gerard Postiglione, Don Watkins, and Wang Liangjuan

Community Colleges and Further Education in China
Denmark…………………………………...Stuart A. Rosenfeld and Cynthia D. Liston

Community College and Further Education in Denmark
England……………………………………………………………………….. Geoff Hall

Further Education in England:

The Engine Room of Social Mobility


French West Africa……………………………………….…………Geremie Sawadogo

Community Colleges and Further Education in French West Africa:

Benin; Burkina Faso; Cote d’Ivoire; Mali, Niger; Mauritania, Senegal and Togo
Germany…………………………………… Volker Rein and Ute Hippach-Schneider

The Vocational education and training system in Germany -

State of the art and trends
Hong Kong…………………………..…Gerard A. Postiglione and Steven S. K. Kwok

The Emergence of the Community College Associate Degree in Hong Kong
Ireland………………………………………………………………….Frank McMahon

Community Colleges and Further Education in Ireland
Japan.......................................................................…...Joyce Tsunoda and Yasuko Iida

Institutions in Transition: The “Community Colleges” of Japan
México……..…..Bertha Landrum, Verónica Murillo, David Valladares Aranda, and Arturo Nava Jaimes

Universidades Technologicas de Mexico:

Technical Institutions Extend Higher Education to the People
New Zealand……………………………………………………………………Jim Doyle

Community Colleges and Further Education in New Zealand
South Africa……………………………..……………Glen Fisher and Marianne Scott

Public Further Education and Training Colleges in South Africa
Spain…………………………………….. Sandra de Bresser, David Roldán Martínez,

and María Esther del Moral-Pérez


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