«Брестский государственный университет имени А.С. Пушкина»
современный мир Сборник материалов
международной научной конференции
студентов, магистрантов, аспирантов
Брест, 17 апреля 2015 года
В двух частях
БрГУ имени А.С. Пушкина
2015 УДК 811 (082)
кандидат педагогических наук, доцент
доктор педагогических наук
доцент Н.В. Иванюк
доцент Н.Н. Домбровская
доцент И.В. Повх
И 68 Иностранные языки и современный мир : сборник материалов междунар. Науч. Конф. Студентов, Брест, 17 апр. 2015 г. : в 2 ч. / Брест. гос. ун-т. Имени А.С. Пушкина ; редкол.: Н.В. Иванюк, Н.Н. Домбровская,Н.В. Повх. – Брест : БрГУ, 2015. – Ч. 1. – 262 с.
ISBN 978-985-555-388-6 (ч. 1)
В сборник включены материалы, посвященные различным аспектам жизни современного общества: проблемам социально-экономического развития, вопросам окружающей среды, тенденциям в развитии современной науки и др.
Издание адресовано студентам, магистрантам и аспирантам высших учебных заведений. Может быть полезным для всех, кто интересуется проблемами современного мира и изучением иностранных языков.
Ответственность за языковое оформление и содержание несут авторы статей.
Республика Беларусь, Брест, БрГУ имени А.С. Пушкина
Научный руководитель – Н.Н. Домбровская
OBESITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
The problem of childhood obesity has grown considerably in recent years. Between 16 and 33 percent of children and adolescents are obese. Obesity is among the easiest medical conditions to recognize but most difficult to treat. Unhealthy weight gain due to poor diet and lack of exercise is responsible for over 300,000 deaths each year. The annual cost of obesity to society is estimated at nearly $100 billion. Overweight children are much more likely to become overweight adults unless they adopt and maintain healthier patterns of eating and exercise .
What is obesity?
When intake of food exceeds expenditure, the excess is stored as fat. Obesity is an excessive accumulation of fat in the body, which is assessed in children through a body mass index (BMI) that exceeds the 95th percentile for age. A few extra pounds do not suggest obesity. However they may indicate a tendency to gain weight easily and a need for changes in diet and/or exercise. Generally, a child is not considered obese until the weight is at least 10 percent higher than recommended for their height and body type. Obesity most commonly begins between the ages of 5 and 6, or during adolescence. Studies have shown that a child who is obese between the ages of 10 and 13 has an 80 percent chance of becoming an obese adult .
What causes obesity?
Obesity occurs when a person eats more calories than the body burns up. The causes of obesity are complex and include genetic, biological, behavioural, environmental and cultural factors. Family influences in the development of childhood obesity are extremely strong, with inconsistent patterns of eating within families related to childhood obesity. Children with one or both parents overweight are at increased risk for obesity. If one parent is obese, there is a 50 percent chance that their children will also be obese. However, when both parents are obese, their children have an 80 percent chance of being obese. It is often very difficult to isolate factors contributing to obesity in a family in which the parents are obese. When a parent lacks nutritional knowledge, it is reflected in the meals and snacks provided in the home. The child is at risk for development of the same habits. Unstructured meals, “meals on the run”, and meals at fast-food restaurants sometimes lack proper nutrition and are high in calories. Although certain medical disorders may cause obesity, less than 1 percent of all obesity is caused by physical problems. Obesity in childhood and adolescence can be related to poor eating habits: overeating or binging. The child who is given food for reward or punishment attaches more to eating than gaining nutrition. Some people still think that a fat baby is a healthy baby. This type of thinking leads to overfeeding. Lack of exercise also contributes to obesity. The amount of time spent watching television, at a computer, and playing video games takes away from the time the child could be participating in active exercise. Increased weight gain has also been associated with certain medical illnesses as well as stressful life events or changes such as separations, divorce, moves, deaths, abuse, low self-esteem, depression, or other emotional problems .
What are risks and complications of obesity?
There are many risks and complications connected with obesity. Physical consequences include increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, breathing problems, and trouble sleeping.
Child and adolescent obesity is also associated with increased risk of emotional problems. Teens with weight problems tend to have much lower self-esteem and be less popular with their peers. Depression, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive disorder can also occur .
How can obesity be managed and treated?
Obese children need a thorough medical evaluation by a pediatrician or family physician to consider the possibility of a physical cause. In the absence of a physical disorder, the only way to lose weight is to reduce the number of calories eaten and increase the level of physical activity. Lasting weight loss can only occur when there is self-motivation. Since obesity often affects more than one family member, making healthy eating and regular exercise a family activity can improve the chances of successful weight control for the child or adolescent.
Ways to manage obesity in children and adolescents include weight-management programs, changes in eating habits (e.g. eat slowly, develop a routine), meal planning and better food selections (eat less fatty foods, avoid junk and fast foods), portion control and consumption of fewer calories. As snacks are an important aspect in childhood nutrition, nutritious snacks should be identified. However, a child should be offered only healthy food options. For example, ask the child to choose between an apple or popcorn, not an apple or a cookie). We also advise parents to avoid keeping unhealthy food in the house and minimize trips to fast-food restaurants. It is also necessary to stress out the importance of establishing consistent times for meals and snacks and discourage in-between eating. Remember not to use food as a reward. Children should be involved in regular physical exercise at school and at home. The parent needs to limit television and computer game time. The parent should encourage the child to have fun and participate in physical activities with the family. Children can be encouraged to ride their bicycles or walk rather than ride in a car to a friend’s house to play. Some older children and adolescents may find success in a support group, such as Weight Watchers or Overeaters Anonymous.
Obesity frequently becomes a lifelong issue. The reason most obese adolescents gain back their lost pounds is that they tend to go back to their old habits of eating and exercising. An obese adolescent must therefore learn to eat and enjoy healthy foods in moderate amounts as well as exercise regularly to maintain the desired weight. Parents of an obese child can improve their child’s self-esteem by emphasizing their strengths and positive qualities, by praising the child for making appropriate food choices and for increasing physical activity levels, rather than just focusing on their weight problem.
When a child or adolescent with obesity also has emotional problems, a psychiatrist can work with the child’s family physician to develop a comprehensive treatment plan. Such a plan would include reasonable weight loss goals, dietary and physical activity management, behaviour modification, and family involvement .
Obesity In Children And Teens [Electronic resource] / The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. – Mode of access: https://www.aacap.org/. – Date of access: 27.03.2015.
Overweight in Children [Electronic resource] / American Heart Association. - Mode of access: http://www.heart.org/. – Date of access: 28.03.2015.
Obesity in children – causes [Electronic resource] // Better Health Channel. – Mode of access: http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bh csite.nsf. – Date of access: 28.03.2015.
В статье рассматривается проблема лишнего веса у детей и подростков. Автор показывает причины, способствующие ожирению у детей, а также пути их предотвращения.