Warning line systems in combination with the guard rail system, security netting system, or security monitoring systems
Exception: When the employees show that it is not feasible or creates a greater risk in the use of these systems, a protection plan against falling that meets the legal requirements must be developed for inspection and implementation.
Protection against falls is required but is not limited to the following: when a worker is exposed to a fall from a height of 6 feet (1.8m) or more:
Elevation, dismantling, and work on the scaffolding
The provisions of this section do not apply when:
The employees are carrying out an inspection or evaluation of the conditions of the work area before the work is started or after the construction has been finished
Working with cranes
Working with certain types of equipment used in the operation of tunnels
Contracted in the construction of electric transmission and distribution lines
Working on fixed ladders and portable ladders
Persons should not stand on motors, pumps, conduits or try to gain access to an elevated work site
Working on a roof of at least six feet from the edge of an opening in the floor requires the proper protection against falls (guard rail system), security netting system or a system for stopping falls). The use of a security monitor for the detection of falls or a controlled access to the zone shall not be accepted without the previous authorization from the EHS Program Manager.
The security harnesses must be used at all times in the A-Frame and personal elevators. Chains must be closed. The harnesses must be secured to a proper anchoring point when they are outside the elevator floor.
The harnesses must be secured to a proper anchoring point of the aerial platform.
A barricade must be placed or a cord must be placed around the danger zone of the aerial platforms for any objects that may fall.
The elevation of persons on a personal platform with a crane is prohibited except when mounting, using, and dismounting by conventional means of reaching the work site, such as a personal elevator, portable ladders, straight ladders, aerial platforms, elevated work platforms or scaffolding could be more dangerous or not feasible due to the structural design or because of the conditions of work site. This type of operations must comply with all the requirements of local legislation.
Workers must use a security harness with a separate secured life line while working on suspended scaffolding, raft chairs, or other work platforms that are suspended where a risk of falling is present.
The contractor must develop a Written Program of Protection against falls and this must be communicated to all the affected employees. The program shall contain the following elements:
Selection for the control of falling risks
Inspection and maintenance of equipment
The contractor must carry out a risk evaluation of falls for the temporary routine activities that may take place during maintenance or construction.
Control measures shall be identified, implemented, and communicated by the contractor. The documentation of the risk control measures must be included in the secure work plans or other procedures of the operation.
The contractor’s workers must be trained in the requirements of the protection program against falls, including the use of proper protective equipment against falls according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
All scaffolding must be inspected before it is used and must be designed for a secure work load.
Only the floored scaffolding that has been inspected and approved to support the load may be used. The floored scaffolding may be secured by tying or nailing to prevent slipping. The boards of the scaffolding must be marked (in the majority of the cases, the manufacturer does this) and use them only in the scaffolds.
The guard rails and baseboards must be used in all the scaffolds, and the scaffold must be secured correctly.
Tower scaffolding with wheels must be secured while the scaffolding is in use. The tower must be without any personnel, materials, and equipment on it before it is moved. The scaffolding on wheels must not be moved by the top part.
The ladders may be used to gain access to the scaffolds. To climb up by the scaffold in prohibited.
The platforms of the scaffolds that are higher than 6 feet (1.8 m) over any work surface must be equipped with a guard rail system. The top guard rail should be at a height of 42” [1.1 m more/less 3” (8 cm)], the intermediate guard rail should be in the middle of the top guard rail and the platform of the scaffold and the baseboards and fall detention systems must be implemented.
Only trained and qualified personnel can mount, move, dismantle, or alter any scaffolding and under the supervision of a competent person.
Comply with the Scaffolding Card System
GREEN- Complete Scaffold with the required security standards
YELLOW- Conditioned Use – 100% protection from falls required
RED- Scaffold that is not complete. Do not use.
Platforms that are handmade such as piled up material, chairs, boxes, or barrels cannot be used.
The scaffolds of welded tubular frames have additional special requirements for security.
The legs of the scaffolds must be set on adjustable bases, level bases or other adequate bases to support the maximum allowed load.
To prevent any movement, the scaffold must be secured to a building or structure at intervals that do not exceed 30 feet (9.1 m) horizontally and 26 feet (7.9 m) vertically.
All of the bolts must be secured, and the diagonal to the bridle tubes to prevent that they come loose.
All of the scaffolds should be free of tools, trash, etc. before moving them.
The crossbars and the platforms under the level of the surface must be completely covered. The crossbars must be tied to the frame.
The scaffold should not be used as lifting towers for materials or to mount cranes without first determining the loads and the power required.
All of the scaffolds must be free of tools and trash before they are removed.
The scaffolds must be mounted and dismounted very carefully.
They should be taken to solid points of construction if possible.
All personnel are responsible for watching out for the condition of the scaffolds.
During the mounting and dismounting, it is mandatory that no one be below the scaffold.
The scaffold must rest on the ground and on solid support such as for example pieces of wood that present a sufficient base.
These should never be put over bricks or boxes.
The platforms of the scaffold must be robust, be joined together, and free of any obstacle.
Do not overload the platforms with materials. Spread the material out evenly over the work platform.
The rolling scaffolds may only be moved slowly, preferably longitudinally on surface areas with no obstacles.
Nobody should be in the scaffold during its movement.
Before any movement is made, make sure that no object can fall.
Before going up a rolling scaffold, wheels should be blocked and if necessary stabilizers should be placed.
Use work platforms that are protected from the empty space around the edges by a guard rail that impedes the fall of persons or materials.
All waste materials should be removed from the scaffolds daily.
Tools should not be left on the scaffolds during the night.
Inspect the work platforms to verify that they are free from humidity, grease, etc before they are used.
The perpendicular supports must rest on the adequate bases being careful when placed on terrains made up of sand, loose dirt, or loose materials.
These must be a roof covering when there is work done over them.
Baseboards should be placed on all of the scaffolds’ sides besides a protective netting to prevent falls into empty space.
The wood that is used for the construction of the scaffolds must not have any defects that could diminish the structural resistance.
The tubes or barrels that are used must not be deformed or weak.
No metal scaffolds should be mounted at a distance of less than 5 meters from conducting aerial cables from electrical installations.
They cannot be higher than 20 meters in height. The access ladders must extend by at least one meter over the level of the scaffold’s floor.
The ladders must be secured on both extremes (inferior and superior). These should be protected with a parallel guard rail to its edges on the part that is next to the empty space when dealing with ladders of 3 meters in height.
12. CRANES, ELEVATORS, AND WINCHES
Never lift a load over the persons that occupy the building.
Use ropes to control every load.
The lifting operations that use chains are not permitted without the prior authorization of the EHS Program Manager.
It is strictly forbidden to use multiple winches.
All the materials should be secured to prevent unintentional slipping. Hooks with self-closing safety latches must be used to prevent that the components do not slip off the hook.
Lifting equipment that is defective should be tagged and removed from service.
Only qualified operators may operate power equipment. Only qualified operators may operate power equipment. They must use seat belts when applicable.
Cranes and Winches
Safe lifting procedures for cranes and winches must be developed and documented.
The crane and winch operators who are qualified lifters must conduct inspections of the equipment before each use in each lifting and when it is considered necessary during its use to assure that it is safe.
The crane and winch operators must have received training focused on the operative practices for each type of crane that they operate on the site.
Preventive maintenance must be practiced in cranes and winches according to the manufacturer’s guidelines or the local regulatory requirements.
Contactors must keep copies of the detailed annual inspections and with their respective documents conducted by qualified persons.
Traveling on the hooks, wrecking balls, or slings of lifting equipment is strictly prohibited.
The related dangers of electricity are a combination not very habitual in the risks against health and security. Because of its own nature, electricity produces risks when operated as a source of energy in the daily routine and work lives. Within the company, activities that are carried out at electrical installations require the basic management, primarily in programs of construction and maintenance.
Electrical equipment should not be installed, repaired, or removed except by trained and qualified electricians.
The equipment operated by electricians (stationary and portable) must be grounded.
When the extensions, the cables of the power tools or equipment show wear and tear or deterioration, or when the wires of the equipment are exposed, the equipment should be tagged and put out of service. Electrical tape should not be used in extensions.
Temporary extensions must be supported by a minimum of 8 feet over the floor at exit ways, hallways, and areas that require access by employees.
Temporary lights must have protective shields.
Every 120 volt surge, single phase of 15 and 20 amperes at the sites of construction that are not part of the permanent cabling of the building or structure and are in use by the employees must have a circuit interrupter that is grounded (GFCI) for personal protection. When permanent receptacles are used, the GFCI devices must be installed at each extension before the receptacle of the source.
The lock-out/tag-out programs represent a control to save lives. The control procedures for the specific energy of equipment are required for all lock-out/tag-out operations.
The extension cables must be of at least 16-gauge heavy duty of three wires approved by the UL, with three-prong plugs that include a ground pin.
The outlets for 110 volts or portable generators and welders must be 3-way (NEMA 5-15R) grounded to the frame. Energy must be connected through a circuit interrupter and grounded.
14. HIGH RISK OPERATIONS OF THE CONTRACTOR AND HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES
One dangerous activity is the combination of tasks derived from work processes that generate insecure activities and excess exposure to agents that are capable of provoking injuries to the health of the workers or to the work center.
All main activities of construction in this Project must be carefully analyzed to determine the proper security controls to ensure the security and health of the worker according to the laws and regulations and good practice policies of the industry. The construction activities must be reviewed before the contractor arrives at the site or that he commences any special activity of construction so that all parties are able to plan security.
Work that has a high risk factor results in injuries or death or an environmental violation is considered a high risk operation. An analysis of the risks involved in the work or a mitigation plan is a procedure that identifies the specific potential risks for a work focus or its activities and defines the required actions at a local level, security precautions, involved activities, and the work sequence in a manner that the operation shall take the position that is the most possibly secure.
An analysis of the risks in the tasks or mitigation plan shall be required but shall not be limited to all the following activities:
Operations involving the suspension and starting of the fire alarm systems, sprinkler systems in occupied installations, operations involving the suspension and starting of process pipes, electrical systems, hydraulic systems, and elevators/stairs, trenches and major excavations to 5 feet in depth or that require a support system.
Work activities at an elevated level include the work done on roofs or high scaffoldings, Work that must be executed on existing equipment; Installation or removal of equipment or machinery, work involving existing pipes, and ventilation ducts or drains, tail pipes and separation lines; any dangerous paint, wall or floor surface treatments (paints, epoxies, electrostatic paints); removal of asbestos; work in/with materials that contain lead; demolition jobs; mounting of steel structures; elevated work sites that require the use of protection from falling; work done with heat (electric welding, cutting, soldering with blowtorch) in dangerous areas o near dangerous materials; Primer paints on metals; entrance to confined spaces; control of dangerous power supplies and openings of lines (lock-out/ tag/out; any activity that blocks a sidewalk, street, or entrance to a building (in occupied installations or public areas); operation of cranes or winches; Critical lifting (defined as a lifting that has one of the following four criteria)- lifting that exceeds the 75% capacity of the crane or other configuration of lifting of equipment, lifting that requires the use of one or more cranes or a combination of other equipment approved for lifting or stretching, lifting that is located in an area or areas where the conditions present exposure to electric risks, underground risks, aerial pipe systems, containers that are subjected to pressure, buildings in operation, etc.
Lifting of equipment that is identified as specialized equipment, “one of a kind”, that has been designed, engineered, and manufactured for a specific process of the proprietor. This shall include the specific equipment by the proprietor such as reactors made of glass tubes, recipients subjected to pressure etc. and any other unusual activity that can require the revision of the tasks and involved risks.
An analysis of the task risks/ Mitigation Plan must be documented by the contractor / subcontractor to assure a safe working environment. The processes that require work permits (where it is applicable) must be defined in the THA. All the annexes (training documents, localization plans of cranes, information about turning radii, Data Sheets, etc.) must be included in the shipment of the mitigation plan. The THA must be submitted to the proprietor for its revision at least 48 hours before the programmed operation.
A competent person employed by the contractor must inspect the risk analysis of the tasks with the workers before the commencement of the activity and on a daily basis or a change in the conditions (such as the weather).
15. BLOCKING OF ENERGY
The majority of the industrial accidents are caused by the uncontrolled escape of dangerous energy. Many of these accidents may be avoided by the use of the adequate procedure of the card, lock and test which are designed to prevent mortal accidents and injuries to the workers that are involved in the maintenance and service of the machinery and equipment that may be activated unexpectedly.
The Standard of the Lockout Tagout (LOTO) applies but is not limited to the activities carried out in one machine, one part of the equipment, a process or a circuit. Primary, secondary, stored energy and sources of simple energy require a placement of locks when service activities and/or maintenance activities are carried out. The sources of primary energy are such as electricity, gas, fluids, etc. that lend energy to the machinery, processes, and circuits.
Also used for machinery with parts in movement or process in service for adjustments or repairs.
If stopping is not feasible, an evaluation of the risk must be made. The evaluation of the risk explores the most secure conditions for individual assignment of work. The risk evaluation establishes secure practices and alternative methods for the reduction of the possibility of injuries when the normal LOTO cannot be applied.
A risk analysis of tasks (mitigation plan) and specific written procedures for the new work must be terminated and reviewed with the proprietor before starting.
Never remove the warning or danger labels or locks in any device, valve, or circuit interrupters unless you have been instructed to do so and then only by the person who placed them there.
The contractors that are involved with the equipment/systems and are potentially exposed must implement the procedures that lend protection.
The supervisor of the contractor must have knowledge of all the LOTO procedure and be informed of the procedure of the specific equipment by an authorized representative of the proprietor.
The contractors must place their own locks and cards (one lock, one key, one person) and verify the LOTO by testing it.
All the contractor’s workers involved in a LOTO operation must have the documentation of the LOTO training. This documentation must be made available for the audits of the work site.
Prepare: Before beginning, assure yourself of having knowledge of all the types of energy present, the risks that each type of energy presents and how to control that energy. Notify all of your affected employees before turning off any source of energy.
Stop: The authorized employee stops the machine or equipment.
Isolate: Isolate the machinery or equipment of the source(s) of energy as for example turning off the circuit interrupter.
Control: Apply lock(s) making sure that you are holding the device in its off position.
Free: Free the stored energy, disconnect, retain, block, or in another manner assure that all the sources of energy are freed of their energy.
Verify: Try to execute a normal cycle of operation, return to neutral or off after the test.
STEPS TO TURN THE EQUIPMENT BACK ON:
Inspect: Inspect the equipment and assure yourself that:
You have removed all tools and materials
The machinery has been totally reassembled
The guards and other security devices have been reinstalled
Verify: Assure yourself that:
All the employees are in a safe place
All the affected employees, your supervisor, and the area supervisor have been notified that your have finished your work on the machine or equipment
c). Remove: Remove the devices for the blocking of security. Only the person who installed the lock can remove it unless the owner has personally contacted another authorized employee (to assure that the owner has knowledge of this action before it is continued)
16. CONFINED SPACES
Working in confined spaces presents certain risks.
Grave injuries and even the death of someone can be caused by asphyxia, suffocation, electrocution, falls, and fatigue caused by heat. When carrying out an activity within these areas, it is obligatory to fill out and follow a special work permit.
A confined space is a closed area that has one of the following four characteristics:
Sufficiently large enough so that a worker can enter and carry out the assigned task.
Have limited means of entry so that the worker can enter and leave depending on the number, size, and location of the openings.
It is not designed to be occupied permanently by a worker.
It has or can have a serious security or health risk. Said risks include present or potential atmospheric risks, the worker being trapped (walls that converge or floors with slippery inclinations) potential sinking of the worker in solid materials, Examples of confined spaces include tanks, recipients, wells, drainage systems, pipes, boilers, and the valves of installations.
Entrance into a confined space must be effectuated only if it is necessary to do an assigned task. Whenever possible, the assigned task must be done outside the space.
To enter a confined space is prohibited unless the atmosphere of this space is tested and applicable entry procedures have been documented and the permits filled out.
All those employees and the assistants of the contractor that enter must have the training documentation for entering confined spaces/assistant. Additional training for respiratory protection and the required documentation shall be required (if the protection equipment is necessary). This documentation must be made available for inspection at the work site.
All those that enter and including the assistants must be informed of the entry procedures and the mitigation plan before entrance.
The use of rescue equipment is required for all entries into confined spaces. The number of persons who enter must be equal to the number of available rescue devices.