Contributions of the philosophy of science to juridical semantics

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Discourses of the academy: A generic view

Genres in the academy represent an enormous range of text-types some of which display significant overlaps, while others have very little in common because of the disciplinary and professional tensions. Although it may appear to be pedagogically convenient to view this varied range as a colony of academic genres with some overlapping features, it may not necessarily be possible to sustain the argument for the existence of Language for Academic Purposes (LAP), and certainly not pedagogically effective to use this rather assumed level and degree of common core as a basis for the design and delivery of broad angle LSP courses. Using analyses of a number of academic and professional genres, the proposed paper seeks to challenge this LAP practice, based on the assumption of a common core, raising some of the important issues relating research and practice in LSP. The paper will also discuss implications of these findings to answer the question: to what extent this assumed common core can provide an effective basis for the design and delivery of LSP courses which are economical and effective in academic contexts?



Bhatia, Prof. Vijay. K.

Developing web-mediated genre-based English language resources for university students of law

see: Christopher N. Candlin



Bilbow, Dr. Grahame T.
From language data to pedagogy in specific purpose language training: a Hong Kong case study
This paper reports on the results of a funded research project in Hong Kong that has sought to identify and analyse the core communicative competencies, expressed in English language terms, required by staff in the hotel industry in a range of communicative activities (task-types) at a range of professional levels. Task-types include tasks involving communication with clients; intra-organisational communication; inter-organisational communication; and international communication.
Using the University’s links with hotels in Hong Kong, and with collaboration from the Hong Kong Hotels Association, the project team have collected authentic English language data (both spoken and written) in a variety of interaction-types in hotel-related contexts. On the basis of these data, a range of operational and managerial activities have been identified in which English is typically used to achieve interpersonal as well as organisational aims; and the 'core' communicative competencies and English language proficiency levels required for these activities have been tracked, allowing for competency statements and English language proficiency benchmarks to be elaborated for each task-type.
The principal beneficiaries of this project are human resources personnel in the hotel industry who are responsible for decision-making related to staff language training needs, and educational institutions tasked with providing specific purposes language training for the industry.


Bjørge, Anne Kari

Background information and target reader in translating expository text

It is generally accepted that proper nouns have unique denotation within a given universe of discourse. Thus, whenever a proper noun is used in a piece of prose, the writer has to make assumptions about whether his or her target audience is able to identify its reference. If not, it may be necessary to add information to identify it to the reader. This aspect is particularly important in translation, where the writer has to make assumptions about a target readership belonging to a different culture. Thus Newmark (1998: 89–90, 116) states that proper names not known to the target audience have to be explained in the translation. In my presentation, I shall demonstrate how this problem is dealt with in journalistic prose aimed at an international vs a national audience, and discuss the implications for translation. My discussion will be based on a corpus of texts taken from the international edition of the Financial Times. Since this newspaper is specifically aimed at a cross-cultural audience, it is of interest to see how its journalists select additional information to make an item accessible to an international readership.


References
Newmark, P. More paragraphs on translation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 1998.


Björklund, Siv
Developing LSP via a first or a second language

As a result of the increased supranational character of organisations and business, the command of a non-native language for professional use tends to become more and more important. In order to help students to achieve professional communicative competence in a second language, it has become quite common to set up courses where both content and language are integrated.


My pilot study aims at following and defining the mutual influence of language and content in a second-language content-specific context. My material consists of immersion students (15 years of age) who are about to finish their obligatory education period. Through immersion they have become thoroughly acquainted with their second language since about half of their instruction time has been spent with the second language (Swedish) as the language of instruction.
In my study I will focus on how immersion students and Swedish-speaking students of the same age compose essays on two different content-specific themes: baptism and nutrition. Are there elements which can be defined as LSP or can potentially develop into characteristics of LSP? How do students choose to present and express potential special characteristics of the two different subject areas? Is the means of expression, a first or a second language, decisive for the formulation of content-specific texts or do content-specific texts essentially follow the same substantial pattern even if expressed in a second language which is defined as almost native-like?


Breivega, Kjersti R.
Cultural identity in academic prose: national versus scientific
see: Fløttum, Kjersti


Brekke, Magnar
Lexical identification of domain focal text
Defining and delimiting the subdomains of human knowledge has proved difficult especially in the social and humanist sciences. The determination of what subdomains constitute the area of economic-administrative languages has thus proved quite intractable. A related problem is the large degree of overlap between subdomains.
Project TERMINEC has been launced to establish a resource database for the intensive study of Norwegian and English special language used in economic-administrative domains. A test corpus is currently undergoing frequency analysis with concordance and collocation studies. Three lexical sets of key terms conventionally associated with the subdomains of Economics, Finance, and Management, respectively, were tested against subcorpora with 100 000 words of texts unspecified as to subdomain.
The results show that about half of the terms encountered were domain focal terms, i.e. single-domain terms occurring with low frequencies in only one subcorpus, and unlikely to occur in general language text. On the other hand there is a significant amount of "diffraction" of terminological units occurring with quite high frequencies where subdomains and subcorpora intersect. The need for controlling the lexical overlap between tentatively defined subdomains is clearly demonstrated. We take the results to support the general feasibility of a lexical approach to the identification of domain focal terminology.
Bréüs, Ph.D. Virginie
The language for special purposes: the operational language of army
The characteristic language for special purposes is certainly operational language of army. Specialised language pre-eminently; it has the aim to be useful and to transmit information relating to action to carry out. This language which must lead to the most economic forms of communication, is subject to the constraints of a professional activity. So the operational utterances concentrate on indispensable information. The consequence of this concentration is that a lot of linguistic elements are formally missing. By this reduced structure, this language compares with telegram, but doesn’t really work like a system of lacking, but like a principle of condensation on the informative elements. This condensation is motivated by temporal constraints and by the research of precision. But this simplification doesn’t damage interpretation of the utterances, unlike telegrams, which are sometimes impenetrable. The missing data given by situation are implied by the enunciation, so the intelligibility is kept even if the linguistic information under determines the interpretation. By this language, locutors adapt to their needs the components of the language. Even if this kind of language is very structured and very constraining, it can be effective only if it is realised in a group with a strict organisation.
Budin, Gerhard
The epistemological role of terminology science: its relation to other academic disciplines. The construction of theories in terminology
see: Colloquium Terminology science at the crossroads?
Budin, Gerhard


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