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A5

alive, animate, coexist, create, exist, life, live, survive

1. They believe that the ________ of the universe was a coincidence.

2. Currently, she is ________ in a student hostel.

3. After the accident, only ten people ________.

4. Although he is old, he is still very much ________.

5. His excitement ________ all of us.

6. Do fairies and genies really ________?

7. There is no _______ on the moon.

8. Did man ______ with dinosaurs?

A6

immortal, inherent, mortal

1. It is an ________ part of human nature to avoid pain.

2. All men are ________.

3. The Greeks told stories about the ________ gods.



B. LIVING CREATURES GENERALLY

B1

animal, being, creature, beast, species, breed, race

1. a four-footed animal

2. a group of plants or animals that are the same of a kind, which are alike in all important ways,
and which can produce young of the same kind

3. a kind or class of animal or plant, usually developed by man

4. a living creature, especially a person or a personality

5. a living thing, especially an animal

6. a living thing, not a plant or a human

7. any of several kinds of people with different physical features



B2

amphibian, insect, pest

1. An ________ vehicle is useful on land and in the water. AMPHIBIAN

2. I've found some cockroaches in the bathroom. We need some ________. INSECT

3. Farmers spray ________ on their crops to get a good yield. PEST



B3

bacteria, bug, parasite, reptile, rodent

1. She leads a ________ life, doing no work herself but helped by everyone else.

2. Snakes and crocodiles are ________.

3. Rabbits and rats are ________.

4. ________ exist in water, soil, air, plants, and the bodies of animals and people.

5. She's got the flu ________.



B4

game, predator, prey, scavenger

1. This town is full of ________ hotel-keepers charging very high prices.

2. The lion seized its ________ and ate it.

3. Jackals and vultures are ________.

4. This is a very good ________ soup.

B5

bark, nest, pack, school, troop, web

1. When we heard the bark of the ________ (dog / lion / jackal), we stopped.

2. The ________ (bear / jackal / sparrow) was sitting in its nest.

3. We keep a pack of ________ (dogs / birds / sheep)

4. A school of ________ (deer / fish / pigeons) went past us.

5. The troop of ________ (sparrows / dolphins / baboons) was a sight to see!

6. The ________ (spider / scorpion / ant) sat in the centre of the web.

C. ANIMALS AND INSECTS

C1

alligator, ant, ape, bee, beetle, cattle, cricket, eagle, mosquito, moth, mule, serpent, shark, snake, wasp, whale, worm

1. a flying insect with yellow and black stripes across its body

2. a large bird that lives by hunting and eating small animals

3. a large fierce cold-blooded animal that lives on land and in lakes and rivers

4. a long, thin reptile with no legs

5. a small animal with a long thin body, no bones and no legs

6. a small flying insect that bites people in order to suck their blood.

7. a small insect that generally lives under the ground in large colonies

8. a small jumping insect that produces sharp sounds by rubbing its winds together.

9. a small flying insect that lives in large colonies and lives on pollens.

10. a snake

11. a very large animal that lives in the sea and looks like a huge fish

12. a very large fish with sharp teeth

13. an animal produced by a horse and a donkey

14. an insect like a butterfly, which usually flies at night and eats woollen material

15. an insect with a hard covering to its body

16. any large kind of monkey without a tail

17. cows and bulls



C2

antenna, antler, beak, claw, fur, horn, mouth, neck, nose, paw, shell, shoulder, skin, spine, tail, tame, toe, tooth, trunk, whiskers, wing

1. All flying animals have a pair of ________.

2. An insect uses its ________ to feel things.

3. Animals like cows, giraffe, rhinoceros all have a single or a double ________.

4. Birds have ________ instead of nails.

5. Cats' and dogs' feet are generally called ________.

6. Elephants take food into their mouth through their ________.

7. Hippopotamus is a land animal with the largest ________.

8. In animals, backbone is also called the ________

9. In birds, the bony structure in the place of lips is called the ________.

10. In cats and similar animals, the long moustache is called ________.

11. In many fish, the ________ has evolved into scales.

12. In the circus, they _________ lions so that they won't attack people.

13. In whales, the ________ is a single hole on top of the head.

14. Many animals, such as deer, have ________ to protect themselves.

15. Many fish don't have ________ but the shark has.

16. Many insects have a hard ________ which is hard to break.

17. Most mammals are covered with a thick ________ .

18. On the foot, the large "finger" is called the ________.

19. The ________ of a giraffe is very long.

20. The neck is connected to the body through ________.

21. When they are happy, dogs wag their ________.



D. KINDS AND PARTS OF PLANTS

D1

ivy, moss, shrub, straw, undergrowth, weed

1. a low plant like a small tree with several woody stems instead of a trunk

2. a plant that grows up walls and trees and has small, shiny leaves

3. a very soft green plant which grows on damp soil, or on wood or stone

4. a wild plant that grows in gardens or fields and is harmful for cultivated plants

5. bushes and plants growing together under the trees in a forest or jungle.

6. dried, yellowish stalks of crops such as wheat or barley.

D2

bloom, blossom

A plant or tree that is in ________ has flowers on it. On the other hand, ________ is the flowers that appear just before the fruit.



D3

bud, core, ear, grain, juice, leaf, needle, root, sap, shoot, stem, stone, thorn

1. Apples have ________ in them.

2. Goats are dangerous for a forest because they love eating _____ of trees.

3. He gave the beggar some ________ of rice.

4. He got a ________ in his finger when he touched the plant.

5. He gave me two ________ of corn to show the pests in them.

6. His aggressiveness ________ from over-working.

7. In autumn, the ________ fall from most trees.

8. It is difficult to understand how the _______ reaches from roots up to the leaves.

9. Many fruits, such as cherries and peaches, have a single ________ in them.

10. The branch he broke from the tree was full of flower ________.

11. The ground was covered with pine ________.

12. This year, oranges are very ________.

13. When I was digging the ground, the ________ of the tree were a bit damaged.

 

Exercise

 Find synonym for the underlined word.



1. There is a campaign against those hunters who mercilessly slaughter baby seals.

A) net

B) capture

c) kill

D) skin

2. Allowing fields to lie fallow is one way of restoring fertility.

A) unplanted

b) ploughed

c) watered

d) seeded

3. One of the oldest forms of folk art is handicraft, the creation of objects by hands.

A) invention

B) activity

C) hobby

D) elevation

4. The laws of nature determine that some animals nurture their young from birth while
others will leave offspring to survive on their own.

A) convalesce

B) shelter

C) nourish

D) predispose

5. The laws of nature determine that some animals nurture their young from birth while
others will leave offspring to survive on their own.

A) body

B) baby

C) food

D) partner

6. The laws of nature determine that some animals nurture their young from birth while
others will leave offspring to survive on their own.

A) hold up

B) feed

C) go extinct

D) disappear

7. Copyright laws are intended to prohibit the systematic reproduction of published works
for the purpose of avoiding their purchase.

A) revision

B) duplication

C) preparation

D) design

8. No one can survive for very long without water.

A) reproduce

B) prosper

C) transcend

D) exist

9. Magnolia is a family of trees and shrubs that are native to North America and Asia.

A) flowers

B) leaves

C) trunks

D) bushes

10. Many pesticides are available for insects like termites and cockroaches.

A) poisons

B) deterrents

C) sprays

2. THE BODY: ITS FUNCTION

A. THE BODY GENERALLY

A1

build, limb, muscle, nerve

1. He's extremely ________. He must have spent plenty of time for exercise. BUILD

2. The female athlete tends to be longer-________. LIMB

3. Great ________ effort is needed to accomplish the task. MUSCLE

4. He eventually had a ________ breakdown. NERVE

A2

corpse, remains, tissue

1. A ________ lay uncovered in the hospital table.

2. On his face was a scar ________ left by a wound.

3. We visited some Roman ________.



A3

meat, flesh

________ is the soft material that covers the bones of human beings and animals. However, ________ is from animals - apart from fish and birds - that is eaten.



B. THE BODY

B1

ankle, elbow, heel, jaw, joint, rib, skull, wrist

1. a part of the body where two bones meet and are able to move together

2. the back part of foot, just below the ankle

3. the bony part of the head which encloses the brain

4. the curved bones that go from the backbone to the chest

5. the joint where the foot joins the leg

6. the lower part of the face below the mouth

7. the part of the body between the hand and the arm which bends when the hand moves

8. the part in middle the arm where the arm bends

B2

mouth, stomach, thigh, tongue, waist

1. I hadn't heard what he said, so he ________ the word once again.

2. I didn't intend to say it; it was a slip of the ________.

3. We are quite unable to ________ this silly idea.

4. She decided to narrow the ________ of her skirt.

5. I walked the last six kilometres in water up to my ________.



C. THE HEAD AND FACE

brain, brow, nostril, pupil, throat, tonsils, tooth, wink

1. We ________ our brains but couldn't find the answer.

2. He sat there ________ his brows and snorting.

3. As I was smoking secretly, my dad caught me with ________ in my nostrils.

4. The optician ________ the pupil before he prescribed the cleansing fluid.

5. Before he started speaking, he ________ his throat noisily.

6. Doctor had to _______ his tonsils because tonsillitis was about to develop.

7. I love dessert; I really have a ________ tooth.

8. I feel so tired - I haven't ________ a wink.

D. THE TRUNK, ARMS, AND LEGS

D1

lap, nail, palm, sole, thumb

1. After the match, I had blisters developing on the _____ of my feet.

2. Her youngest child was asleep in her _____.

3. Please stop biting your _____!

4. Some people claim that they can read your future through your _____.

5. The new-born baby was sucking her _____.



D2

abdomen, artery, heart, vein, womb

1. a particular style or mood

2. the organ in the chest that pomps the blood around the body

3. the part inside a woman's body where a baby grows before it is born

4. the part of the body below the chest where the stomach and intestines are

5. the tubes in the body that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body



D3

bleed, breath, exhale, inhale

1. Has the _____ stopped or do you need some extra bandage? BLEED

2. They followed the game with _____ interest. BREATH

3. The old man's _____ was too weak to put the candle out. EXHALE

4. _____ of smoke is actually harmful for the lungs. INHALE

E. THE SKIN, THE COMPLEXION, AND THE HAIR

E1

bald, beard, dandruff, moustache, pore, whiskers, wrinkle

1. hair on a man's face, especially on the sides of his face

2. lines in someone's skin, especially on the face, which form with age

3. small white pieces of dead skin that are in hair or falls from it

4. someone who has little or no hair

5. the hair that grows on a man's upper lip

6. the hair that grows on the chin and cheeks

7. the small holes in the skin



E2

auburn, blond, sunburnt, suntan, tanned

1. brown

2. darker than usual

3. light

4. pinkish

5. reddish



E3

fair, light, pale

1. She has got _____ blue eyes.

2. Unprotected _____ skin gets suntanned very quickly.

3. You look awfully _____. Are you all right?



F. FLUIDS AND WASTE PRODUCTS OF THE BODY

excrement, perspire, spit, sweat, tear

1. Animals _____ sweat through the skin and faeces from the anus. EXCREMENT

2. His face was wet with _____. PERSPIRE

3. He is the _____ image of his uncle. SPIT

4. Was that _____ walk along the beach necessary? SWEAT

5. His _____ family came to pay their last respects. TEAR



G. BODILY STATES AND ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES

G1

daze, dream, hibernate, lose, nap, relax, rest, sleep, wake, yawn

1. She looked very _____ by the news. DAZE

2. A _____ look came into her eyes. DREAM

3. ________ is vital in many animals life. HIBERNATE

4. He is suffering from a sudden _____ of weight. LOSE

5. When I last saw grandpa, he was _____. NAP

6. The authorities recommend a general _____ in child discipline. RELAX

7. I spent a _____ night because of the nightmares. REST

8. She suddenly started to feel very _____. SLEEP

9. I spent most of my _____ hours in the library. WAKE

10. They drew back from the _____ chasm. YAWN

G2

calm, restless, strain, temperate, tense, unease

1. effort, anxiety

2. embarrassment, confusion

3. moderate, calm, mild

4. nervous, uneasy, unsettled

5. peaceful, relaxed, quiet

6. strained, tight, nervous

G3

feeble, weak

1. "They seemed all right to me," I explained _____ FEEBLE

2. Acid _____ the structure of pearls. WEAK

G4

active, lazy, lively

1. ineffective, boring X _____

2. hardworking, industrious X _____

3. idle, indolent, inert X _____



G5

drowsy, exhaust, fatigue, tire, weary, worn-out

1. feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness

2. make someone use a lot of energy, with the result that one needs to rest

3. make someone very tired

4. tired and without enthusiasm

5. too old, damaged or thin from use

6. too sleepy and exhausted

G6

asleep, awake, aware, conscious, nightmare, strength, trance

1. I can hear his snore; I think he is _____ asleep.

2. When I went into his room, he was already _____ awake.

3. Are you aware _____ the dangers of smoking?

4. When they hit him, he _____ consciousness.

5. When they caught him with the money, he fell into a nightmarish _____.

6. By June, the tourists were arriving _____ strength.

7. He was _____ a deep trance.



G7

obesity, overweight, robust, slender, slight, slim, stout, thickset

1. delicate; unimportant

2. nearly fat

3. plump, thick, heavy

4. slim, fragile

5. stoutness, fleshiness, fatness

6. thin, slender

7. vigorous, hard, strong

8. well-built

Exercise

Find synonym for the underlined word.



1. Peter was an agile and athletic youth.

A) awkward

B) active

C) ponderous

D) inept

2. Even though he was obese, Oliver Hardy gained fame as a comedian.

A) dying

B) crazy

C) unhappy

D) fat

3. Racoons are examples of animals that hibernate several months of the year.

A) sleep

B) fast

C) lose hair

D) store food

4. If severe haemorrhaging is not stopped, death can result in minutes.

A) coughing

B) trembling

C) paralysis

D) bleeding

5. Because of the moon's weak gravity, it has little or no atmosphere.

A) potent

B) feeble

C) negative

D) harmless

6. The African continent is a vast, latent source of mineral wealth and hydroelectric
power.

A) conductive

B) powerful

C) incomplete

D) potential

7. Corpulent people are constantly trying new diets.

A) Slim

B) Fat

C) Unfit

D) Lazy

8. At the end of the race, his stamina gave out, so he lost the race.

A) place

B) stand

C) vigour

D) memory

9. The lungs are the chief organs of respiration in human beings and other animals.

A) oxygen

B) creation

C) breathing

D) activity


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