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Part (v, n)  __________ (adj)

3. Separate (v, adj)  __________ (adj)

4. Split (v, adj)  __________ (n)

E4

insulate, isolate

- What is the difference between insulate and isolate?



E5

affix, amalgamate, bang, penetrate, pierce

1. Affix = attach, app _ _ _

2. Amalgamate = mix, al _ _ _

3. Bang = strike, bat _ _ _

4. Penetrate = pierce, b _ _ e

5. Pierce = penetrate, enter, d _ _ ll



E6

combine, connect, consolidate, integrate, join, tie, unite

1. The rescue operation is a ________ undertaking of several rescue teams. COMBINE

2. He did the cleverest thing and ________ the plug before he opened the cabin door. CONNECT

3. This has been a real __________. CONSOLIDATE

4. Reading, writing, listening and speaking are named _________ skills in language teaching.
INTEGRATE

5. This is a ________ venture. JOIN

6. Do you thing you can ________ this lock? Otherwise, I'll have to cut it. TIE

7. We need ___________ and loyalty. UNITE



E7

adjunct, junction

1. addition, appendix

2. joining, connection

E8

rip, tear

1. The identity of the famous murderer of the nineteenth century, Jack the ________, will probably


never be found. RIP

2. Study the difference between tear (v) and tear (n).



E9

associate, association, incorporate, union

1. Associate = comrade, coll _ _ _ _ _

2. Association = alliance, relation _ _ _ _

3. Incorporate = merge, com _ _ _ _

4. Union = coalition, un _ _ _

E10

blast, break

1. Blast = explosion, _ _ _ charge

2. Break = frac _ _ _ _

E11

shatter, smash, snap

1. Study the difference between shatter and smash.

2. Study the difference between snap and snatch.

E12

depress, dready, press

1. Study the difference between depress and press.

2. Study the difference between dready and dreary.

E13

bruise, rub, squeeze

1. He _________ the lemon, but it was too green.

2. He survived the accident with minor cuts and __________.

3. If you want to polish your silverware, you need to _________ it with some polishing liquid.



E14

hit, kick, knock, strike

1. Hit = blow, strike, cr _ _ _

2. Kick = blow with the _ _ _ _

3. Knock = rap, _ _ p

4. Strike = hit, b _ _ t

E15

burst, erupt, explode

1. Finally, she _________ into tears.

2. The volcano _________ with a great roar.

3. When the bomb ________, I was within the radius of the hazardous area.



E16

damage, harm, hurt, spoil

1. Alcohol apparently did great __________ on his health.

2. His being drunk ________ the party.

3. I didn't want to ________ her feelings! I thought she deserved to know the truth.

4. The dam was seriously _________ because of the earthquake.

E17

annihilate, destroy, eradicate

1. demolish, dissolve

2. destroy, demolish, overthrow

3. end, exterminate, destroy



E18

devastate, disrupt, ruin, undermine

1. The blaze was __________! The factory was destroyed completely. DEVASTATE

2. It is impossible to tolerate further _________. DISRUPT

3. We visited the archaeological site where some of the _________ were yet to be uncovered. RUIN

4. Undermine = threaten, w _ _ _ en

E19

deteriorate, worsen

- What is the difference between deteriorate and worsen?



F. SHOWING, HIDING, FINDING, SAVING, AND SIMILAR WORDS

F1

demonstrate, display, indicate, point

1. Demonstrate = show, explain, il _ _ _ _ rate

2. Display = exhibit, ex _ _ _ _

3. Indicate = point, show, _ _ note

4. Point = indicate, sug _ _ _ _

F2

exhibit, expose, exposure, reveal, revelation

1. Study the difference: exhibit, expose and reveal.

2. Exposure = _ _ _ closure

3. Revelation = an _ _ _ _ _ _ ment



F3

conceal, hide

- What is the difference between conceal and hide?



F4

discover, track down, trace

1. Discover (v)  __________ (n)

2. What is the difference between track down and trace?

F5

find, hunt, lose, search, seek, stalk

1. Find (v)  __________ (n)

2. Study the difference: hunt, search, seek, stalk.

3. Study the difference: lose, loss, loose and loosen.



F6

explore, inspect, investigate

1. Explore (v)  __________ (n)

2. Inspect (v)  __________ (n)

3. Investigate (v)  __________ (n)



F7

check, examine, probe, research

1. Can you __________ whether we've remembered to bring our portable gas stove?

2. The doctor __________ the patient casually.

3. Trying to figure out a solution to this problem is like _________ in darkness.

4. We'll have make a detailed __________ into the causes of this office fire.

F8

conserve, preserve

- What is the difference between conserve and preserve?



F9

salvage, save

- Study the difference: salvage, save, rescue.



F10

rescue, reserve, withhold

1. Study the difference: rescue, help, survive.

2. Study the difference: reserve, preserve.

3. Withhold = disown, _ _ _ claim



F11

care, guard, protect, secure, vulnerable

1. She is a tender and __________ mother. CARE

2. It will be very hard to persuade the _________ to let us see the prisoners. GUARD

3. Government __________ on public enterprises can be harmful. PROTECT

4. How do you obtain __________ here? SECURE

5. Switzerland's complete _________ to attack any neighbouring country has secured its


independence through centuries. VULNERABLE
 
 Tümce Analizi

Tümce analizini bir tümce üzerinde incelersek,

The student revolt is not only a thorn in the side of the president's newly established government, but it has international implications as well.

tümcenin türünü (basit tümce ya da bileşik tümce) saptayın. Basit tümce ise S+V+O unsurlarını saptayın. Bileşik tümce ise yan tümce ile ana tümceyi saptayarak ayrı ayrı S+V+O unsurlarını saptayın. Esas yüklemi saptayabilmek en önemli nokta.

Tümce "not only ... but (also/as well)" yapısı içeren bir bileşik tümce.

The student revolt is not only a thorn in the side of the president's newly established government, // but it has international implications as well.

tümcenin okunması esnasında kafa karıştıracak türden her türlü yapıyı parantez içine alarak şimdilik gözardı edin:

The student revolt is not only a thorn (in the side of the president's newly established government), but it has international implications as well.

tümcede bir başka yapının yerine geçebilecek sözcükleri (reference words) analiz edin:

..., but it has international implications as well. it = The students revolt

birden fazla yapıda farklı anlamlar taşıyabilen as, for, yet, since gibi yapıları mutlaka inceleyin; sözcüklerin Türkçesini belirleyin; tümceyi sözcük sözcük olarak değil, anlamını anladığınız şekilde Türkçeye aktarın; parantez içine aldığınız yapıları dilerseniz çeviri esnasında da gözardı edip sonradan tümcenize uygun bir şekilde ekleyebilirsiniz; çevirinizin Türkçesini kontrol edin. Kontrol esnasında ölçütünüz şu olmalı: Türkçe tümce İngilizce tümceyi hiç okumamış biri tarafından okunduğunda, bu kişi İngilizce tümcenin taşıdığı anlamın aynısını çıkarabilir mi?

ALIŞTIRMA 1

Tümcelerin anlamına yönelik soruları yanıtladıktan sonra tümceleri analiz ederek Türkçeye aktarın.



  1. I disagreed then as now with many of John Smith's judgements, but always respected him, and this book is a welcome reminder of his big, honest, friendly, stubborn personality.
    How does the author of this sentence feel about John Smith ?

_____ a. He dislikes him but agrees with his ideas.
_____ b. He considers him to be a disagreeable person.
_____ c. He disagrees with his ideas but respects him.
_____ d. He disagreed with him then but agrees with him now.

  1. Concepts like passivity, dependence, and aggression may need further research if they are to continue to be useful ways of thinking about human personalities.
    What might require more research ?

_____ a. Human thought processes
_____ b. Certain concepts
_____ c. Human personalities
_____ d. Useful ways of thinking

  1. In order for you to follow the schedule set by the publisher, your paper must be looked over over the weekend, revised, and handed in in its final form on Monday.
    What must you do on Saturday and Sunday ?

_____ a. Meet the publisher
_____ b. Examine your paper
_____ c. Hand in paper
_____ d. Look over the weekend

  1. The real reason why prices were, and still are, too high is complicated, and no short discussion can satisfactorily explain this problem.
    What word or phrase best describes prices ?

_____ a. Complicated
_____ b. Adequately explained
_____ c. Too high in the past, but low now
_____ d. To high in the past and in the present

  1. This is not just a sad-but-true story; the boy's experience is horrible and damaging, yet a sense of love shines through every word.
    How does the author of this sentence feel about the story ?

_____ a. It transmits a sense of love.
_____ b. It is just sad.
_____ c. It is not true.
_____ d. It is horrible and damaging.

  1. In the past five years the movement has grown from unorganized groups of poorly armed individuals to a comparatively well-armed, well-trained army of anywhere from 10,000 to 16,000 members.
    What is the present condition of the movement ?

_____ a. The members are poorly armed.
_____ b. There are only a few poor individuals.
_____ c. There are over 16,000 members.
_____ d. The members are organized and well-armed.

  1. The financial situation isn't bad yet, but we believe that we have some vital information and, if it is correct, unemployment will soon become a serious problem.
    What do we know about the economic situation ?

_____ a. It won't change.
_____ b. It will become a serious problem.
_____ c. It is not bad now.
_____ d. It will improve.

  1. The general then added, "The only reasonable solution to the sort of problems caused by the current unstable political situation is one of diplomacy and economic measures and not the use of military force."
    What type of solution does the general support ?

_____ a. Economic and diplomatic action.
_____ b. Diplomatic and economic action if military force fails.
_____ c. Only diplomatic action.
_____ d. Military actions in response to political problems.

  1. Because the supply of natural gas was plentiful in comparison to other choices like coal and fuel oil, and because it burns cleaner, many people changed their heating systems to natural gas, thereby creating shortages.
    Why did people prefer gas ?

_____ a. It was natural.
_____ b. There were no other choices.
_____ c. The other fuels were dirtier and less plentiful.
_____ d. There is, even today, a plentiful supply of it.

  1. Few phenomena in history are more puzzling than this one: that men and women with goals so vague, with knowledge so uncertain, with hopes so foggy, still would have risked dangers so certain and tasks so great.
    What historical fact is puzzling ?

_____ a. That ordinary people had such vague goals.
_____ b. That people took such great risks.
_____ c. That people had foggy hopes and uncertain knowledge.
_____ d. That ordinary people completed such great tasks.

  1. Next he had to uncover the ancient secret - so jealously guarded by the ancients that no text of any kind, no descriptive wall painting, and no tomb inscription about making papyrus are known to exist.
    What secret did this man want to discover ?

_____ a. How to understand wall paintings.
_____ b. How to read tomb inscriptions.
_____ c. How to read the ancient texts.
_____ d. How to produce papyrus.

  1. Alexis, the ruler of a city where politics was a fine art, concealed his fears, received the noblemen with extravagant ceremonies, impressed them with his riches, praised them, entertained them, bribed them, made promises he had no intention of keeping - and thus succeeding in keeping their troops outside the city walls.
    Why did Alexis give money and attention to the noblemen?

 _____ a. Because they praised him.
_____ b. In order to prevent their armies from entering the city.
_____ c. In order to impress them with his riches.
_____ d. Because they were his friends.

ALIŞTIRMA 2

Aşağıdaki tümcelerde uygun seçeneği işaretleyin. Ardından tümceleri analiz ederek Türkçeye aktarın.



  1. My discovery of Tillie Olsen was a gift from a friend; years ago she gave me her copy of Tell Me A Riddle, because she liked the stories and wanted to share the experience.
    What do we know about Tillie Olsen ?

_____ 1. She is a friend.
_____ 2. She likes stories.
_____ 3. She likes gifts.
_____ 4. She is an author.

  1. A few government officials even estimate that the war has created more than half a million refugees who need immediate food, clothing, and shelter.
    Exactly how many refugees are there ?

_____ 1. Half a million.
_____ 2. Over half a million.
_____ 3. We do not know exactly.
_____ 4. Only a few government officials know the exact figure.

  1. The Green Tiger Press believes that the relatively unknown works of great children's illustrators are sources of vast beauty and power, and is attempting to make these treasures more easily available.
    What is the goal of this printing company ?

_____ 1. To publish more children's books.
_____ 2. To develop powerful stories.
_____ 3. To make children's illustrations more easily available.
_____ 4. To encourage artists to become children's illustrators.

  1. Although he calls the $1,000 donation "a very generous amount, especially in these times," the president expresses hope that the project will attract additional funds from companies and other sources so that it can continue beyond this year.
    What does the president know about this project ?

_____ 1. It will cost only $1,000.
_____ 2. It is very special.
_____ 3. Special sources will support it.
_____ 4. It cannot continue without additional support.

  1. Any thought that this new custom will remain unchanged - or in Europe will remain uniquely English - is ridiculous.>
    What does the author believe about the new custom ?

_____ 1. It will remain limited.
_____ 2. The custom will change.
_____ 3. Acceptance of the custom is ridiculous.
_____ 4. The custom will remain in Europe.

  1. These robust and persistent sailors gathered from all the nations of Western Europe, and set out on the voyages that laid foundations for four great empires with no other power than sail and oar.
    Why were these voyages important ?

_____ 1. Sailors came from many countries in Europe.
_____ 2. The voyages laid the foundation of western Europe.
_____ 3. The foundations for empires were laid.
_____ 4. Western Europe lost its power.

  1. Young people need to develop the values, attitudes, and problem-solving skills essential to their participation in a political system which was designed, and is still based, on the assumption that all citizens would be so prepared.
    What is a basic assumption of this political system ?

_____ 1. All the people will be capable of participation.
_____ 2. All people participate in the system.
_____ 3. All people should have the same values and attitudes.
_____ 4. Most people cannot develop the skills to participate in the system.

  1. While we may be interested in the possibilities of social harmony and individual fulfillment to be achieved through nontraditional education, one cannot help being cautious about accepting any sort of one-sided educational program as a cure for the world's ills.
    How does the author feel about nontraditional education?

_____ 1. He believes that it has no possibility of success.
_____ 2. He doubts that it can cure the world's ills.
_____ 3. He feels that it is a cure for the world's ills.
_____ 4. He believes that it will bring social harmony.

ALIŞTIRMA 3

Tümce ile aynı anlamı taşıyan tümceyi işaretleyin.



  • Nine out of ten doctors responding to a survey said they recommend our product to their patients if they recommend anything.

  1. Nine out of every ten doctors recommend the product in surveys.

  2. Of the doctors who responded to a survey, nine out of ten doctors recommend the product.

  3. Not many doctors recommend the product if they have to, according to a survey.

  4. Nine out of ten doctors who responded to a survey report that they recommend anything but the product.

  5. If they recommend anything, what nine out of ten doctors recommend in surveys is the product.

  • This organization may succeed marvelously at what it wants to do, but what it wants to do may not be all that important.

  1. The organization is marvelous.

  2. The organization is likely to succeed in achieving this great goal.

  3. Although the organization may reach its goal, it is doubtful whether the goals are so great.

  4. What the organization wants to reach looks marvelous but not important.

  5. Even unimportant goals might be reached by so marvelous organizations.

  • This book contains a totally new outlook which combines the wisdom of the past with scientific knowledge to solve the problems of the present.

  1. Problems of the past and present are solved in this book through a new and scientific approach.

  2. In this book, current knowledge and past wisdom are combined to solve current problems.

  3. Today's problem's cannot be solved in this book by using knowledge of the past and present.

  4. None of today's problems can be solved without scientific knowledge and past experiences, this book suggests.

  5. This book is different because it combines the wisdom of the past with scientific knowledge.

  • Like other timeless symbols, flags have accompanied mankind for thousands of years, gaining ever wider meaning, yet losing none of their inherent and original force.

  1. In spite of losing their original force, flags are a timeless symbol which have been with mankind for thousands of years.

  2. Timeless symbols such as flags typically gain wider meaning while losing none of their inherent force as they accompany mankind through thousands of years.

  3. Thousands of years ago flags used to accompany mankind but through time, like other timeless symbols, they have lost not only some inherent value but also their original force.

  4. As they are considered a timeless symbol, flags have gained continually wider meaning without losing their inherent original force throughout history.

  5. Flags have existed for thousands of years as a timeless symbol, never gaining wider meaning and losing none of their inherent original force.

  • The project of which this book is the result was first suggested in the summer of 1962, in the course of some leisurely conversations at the foot of and (occasionally) on the top of the Alps of western Austria.

  1. This book was written in 1962.

  2. This book was written in Austria.

  3. This book is a collection of seminars held in 1962.

  4. This book is the end result of a project.

  5. This book is about western Austria.

  • Taxes being so high, the descendants of the wealthy class of the nineteenth century are being forced to rent out their estates to paying guests.

  1. In the nineteenth century, the wealthy class rented out its estates to pay their descendants' taxes.

  2. Owing to high taxes, families which were once rich now rent out their estates.

  3. Guests pay high taxes when they rent old estates of those once rich families.

  4. Some families the parents of whom were once rich are having trouble paying their taxes and rents.

  5. High taxes have put the once wealthy families of the nineteenth century into such a terrible situation that they need to rent out their estates.

  • There is a question about the extent to which we can be free of a prejudiced view in the area of religion.

  1. To a certain extent we can never be free of prejudice in the area of religion.

  2. Everyone without exception questions the prejudice view in the area of religion.

  3. A prejudiced view in anyone in the area of religion is questionable.

  4. None one of us can be free of prejudice in the area of religion.

  5. Because we cannot be free of prejudice in the area of religion, we cannot question it.


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