14h Lectures (7 sequences)

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Deterministic School

  • Deterministic School

  • Vision:

  • Pratiques principales:

    • To be conform with the requirements,
    • Customer focus,
    • Lead corrective actions,
  • Concepts:

    • Inspection, AQ, 0 failure,
  • Contributors:

    • Taylor, ISO, Crosby,
  • Targets:

    • Quality cost, lack of top management involvement.

Zero defect concept

  • Zero defect concept

  • Non quality estimated between 15 to 20% of the overall turnover.

Shewhart Walter A. (1891-1967)

  • Shewhart Walter A. (1891-1967)

  • Control charts.

  • Statistical point of view,

Juran Joseph M. (1904-1987?)

  • Juran Joseph M. (1904-1987?)

  • Show the importance of leadeship and continuous improvement,

  • Wrote the « Quality Control Handbook » (1951).

Kaoru Ishikawa

  • Kaoru Ishikawa

  • Set up tools easy to use, that are still used in the everyday life of a quality engineer.

Frederick W. Taylor wrote Principles of Scientific Management in 1911.

  • Frederick W. Taylor wrote Principles of Scientific Management in 1911.

  • Walter A. Shewhart used statistics in quality control and inspection, and showed that productivity improves when variation is reduced (1924); wrote Economic Control of Manufactured Product in 1931.

  • W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran, students of Shewhart, went to Japan in 1950; began transformation from “shoddy” to “world class” goods.

  • In 1960, Dr. K. Ishikawa formalized “quality circles” - the use of small groups to eliminate variation and improve processes.

  • In the late ‘70’s and early ‘80’s:

    • Deming returned from Japan to write Out of the Crisis,
    • and began his famous 4-day seminars in the United States
    • Phil Crosby wrote Quality is Free
    • NBC ran “If Japan can do it, why can’t we?”
    • Motorola began 6 Sigma

  • “Create Constancy of Purpose”

    • Define the problems of today and the future
    • Allocate resources for long-term planning
    • Allocate resources for research and education
    • Constantly improve design of product and service
  • “Adopt A New Philosophy”

    • Quality costs less not more
    • Superstitious learning
    • The call for major change
    • Stop looking at your competition and look at your customer instead
  • “Cease Dependence On Inspection For Quality”

  • “End Proactive Awarding Of Business Based On PriceAlone”

    • Price alone has no meaning
    • Change focus from lowest inital cost to lowest cost
    • Work toward a single source and long term relationship
    • Establish a mutual confidence and aid between purchaser and vendor
  • “Improve Every Process Constantly / Forever”

  • “Institute Training”

    • Management must provide the setting where workers can be succesful
    • Management must remove the inhibitors to good work
    • Management needs an appreciation of variation
    • This is management’s new role

  • “Adopt And Institute Leadership”

    • Remove barriers to pride of workmanship
    • Know the work they supervise
    • Know the difference between special and common cause of variation
  • “Drive Out Fear”

    • The common denominator of fear:
    • Fear of knowledge
    • Performance appraisals
    • Management by fear or numbers
  • “Break Barriers Between Staff Areas”

    • Know your internal suppliers and customers
    • Promote team work
  • “Eliminate Slogans, Exhortations And Targets”

  • “Eliminate Numerical Quotas”

    • They impede quality
    • They reduce production
    • The person’s job becomes meeting a quota

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